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Unit 4 Chem

Organic Chemistry Definitions

Curly arrow movement of an electron pair to form/break a new covalent bond
electronegativity measure of attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
zwitterion dipolar ionic form of an amino acid formed by the donation of a hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. No overall charge
Isoelectric point pH value where the amino acids exists as a zwitterion
Condensation polymerisation monomers bond to form the polymer chain and water is eliminated from this reaction
Condensation two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule e.g. water
biodegradable polymer that breaks down completely into carbon dioxide and water.
degradable polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to heat or light.
phase physically distinct form of a a substance
mobile phase the phase that moves in chromotography
stationary phase the phase that does not move in chromotography
chromatography technique used for separating components in a mixture
Adsorption process by which a solid holds molecules of a gas or liquid as a thin film on the surface of a solid
chromatogram visible record showing the results of separation by chromotography
Retention time time taken in gas chromatography for a component to pass from the column inlet to the detector.
enantiomers optical isomer
achiral not an optical isomer
racemic mixture contains equal amounts of both optical isomers (racemates) does not rotate light
stereospecific one isomer interacts with the enzymes
chirality 4 different groups, do not superimpose
chiral synthesis enzyme produces one isomer
chiral pool sythesis start with one stereospecific isomer resulting in pure optical drug
transition metal complexes catalyses produce, one isomer
synthetic both isomers, need a stronger dose, cheaper, side effects
Problems with synthetic isomers difficult to separate due to the same chemical and physical properties
natural one isomer, need a weaker dose, expensive, no side effects,
Problems with natural enzymes are costly and time consuming
Created by: 07blandforderin