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# Chapter 3

### Exam 2

What are some types of electromagnetic energy on the electromagnetic spectrum? gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet rays, etc.
Three parts of light as a wave are: frequency, wavelength, and amplitude.
What does visible light have to do with atomic structure? (2 things) 1. atoms give off light and other kinds of electromagnetic energy when energetically excited. 2. unlike white light, the light given off by excited atoms is not a continuous spectrum of wavelength.
What is significant about white light? (3 things) 1. light from a light bulb or the sun is white light. 2. contains a continuous distribution of wavelengths spanning the entire visible spectrum. 3. when a narrow beam of white light passes through a prism, wavelengths go at diff rates.
What did Johanna Balmer do? First to discover a pattern in line spectra. Discovered that the wavelengths of the four lines in the hydrogen spectrum can be expressed by an equation.
How did line spectra come about? Scientists realized that energized atoms emit light of specific wavelengths.
Einstein's photoelectric effect a beam of light behaves as if it was a stream of particles (photons) whose energy is related to their frequency by the equation: E=hv (h= 6.626 x10 -34 J x S ) Planck's constant
what do energetic atoms do? emit light of specific wavelengths
what is a fact about wavelength and frequency they are inversely related
What did Max Planck propose? that light came in small bundles or quanta. These bundles of light are called photons.
what do energies of photons depend on? the frequency of the light wave associated with them by the following equation. (E=hv)
What does the Bohr model useful for? describing line spectra but its only applicable for small, relatively simple atoms.
What is Schrodinger's quantum mechanical model of the atom useful for? electrons do not move around the nucleus in defined orbits.
What is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle it is impossible to know precisely where an electron is and what path it follows.
principle quantum numbers are? positive integers (n=1, 2,3, etc).
what is a wave function characterized by? three parameters called quantum numbers.
what is the first type of parameter that a wave function is characterized by? Angluar momentum- momentum quantum number l defines the 3d shape of oribital.
quantum number l: equals? 0, 1, 2, 3, 4..
subshell notation equals? spdfg..
what is an orbital with n=3 and l=2 called? a 3d orbital
How does the quantum mechanical model account for line spectra and the solutions of the Balmer-Rydberg equation? (3 things) 1. each electron occupies an orbital with a specific energy level 2. electrons can occupy the orbital they have the energy for. 3.energetically excited e-'s are unstable & return back to original orbital.
what do the three quantum numbers (n, l and m1) define? energy, shape and spatial orientation.
what is the fourth quantum number? Ms- spin, +1/2 or -1/2
what is the pauli exclusion principle no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers.
what is the Aufbau principle? lower energy orbitals fill before high energy orbitals. AKA- bus rule
what is electron repulsion? outer shell electrons are pushed farther from nucleus than the inner shell electrons, thus are held less tightly.
What is electron shielding? we say the outer electrons are "shielded" from the nucleus by the inner electrons.
what is the effective nuclear charge? Zeff=Zactual-Electron Shielding
what is the electron configuration for aluminum? 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 2p1
what is the shorthand electron configuration for aluminum? [Ne]3s2 3p1
what is the trend followed for electron configurations and atomic radii when going down a group in the periodic table? going down a group (column) in the periodic table we are increasing the principle quantum number so the shells get larger and the radii of atoms increase.
what is the trend followed for electron configurations and atomic radii when going across a period (row) in the periodic table? the principle quantum numbers are increasing, so the shells get larger and the radii or atoms decrease.
what happens when the Zeff increases? the electrons are pulled more tightly towards the nucleus.
Created by: maeallyn93