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Chem Lecture Ch. 1

Atomic Structure: Protons and Neutrons

What did J.J Thompson calculate? Charge to mass ratio- (e/m = 1.758820x10^8 C/g)
What did Millikan calculate? The charge of an electron.
What did J.J Thompson's cathode ray experiment prove? atoms give off negatively charged electrons. Also, those atoms must contain positively charged particles to balance the charge.
What is significant about J.J Thompson's Plum Pudding Model? He proposed that electrons "corpuscles" were surrounded by a positively charged soup, like a blueberry muffin.
What is significant about Rutherford? He created a Gold foil experiment that debunked Thompson's plum pudding model.
What is significant about Rutherford's gold foil experiment? It used alpha particles- a type of emission given off by some naturally occurring radioactive elements. When he aimed a stream of alpha particles at the foil, he noticed almost all went through the foil without being deflected.
What did Rutherford take away from his Gold Foil Experiment? A metal atom is mostly empty space and the mass is concentrated in a tiny central core that he calls the nucleus.
What two particles is the nucleus composed of? protons and neutrons
What makes one atom different than another? The atomic number
What do protons and electrons have in common? they equal each other
Neutrons? neutrons are uncharged, but they add up to an atom's mass number
Mass Number protons plus neutrons
Isotopes Isotopes of an atom have the same atomic number but different mass numbers Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Atomic Mass a weighted average of isotopic masses of an elements naturally occurring isotopes.
Using AMU as a conversion factor If a diamond has a mass of 1.00 grams, how many atoms does the diamond contain? 1.00g (1amu/1.6605x10-24grams)(1carbonatom/12.011amu) = 5.02x10^22 c atoms
what is Avogadro's number? it is a quantity, just like a dozen that we use to count atoms and molecules. one mole of carbon atoms equals 6.022x10^22 c atoms
Using Avogadro's number as conversion factor how many moles of carbon atoms are in the diamond? 5.02x10^22 C atoms (1mole/6.022x10^23 atoms) =0.0834 mol C
Molar Mass mass in grams of one mole of any element. units are g/mol
What does Avogadro's number tell us? How many atoms are in a mole.
What do we use Avogadro's number to convert between? atoms and moles 1mole= 6.022x10^22
What is Nuclear Chemistry? the study of properties and changes of atomic nuclei
Nuclear Reaction involves a change in the atom's nucleus, usually producing a different element.
Radioactive Isotopes undergo spontaneous decomposition (decay)and emit some form of radiation.
Radiation The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or moving subatomic particles. there are three types found by Rutherford, alpha, beta, and gamma!
Alpha Radiation is attracted/deflected to a negative electrode
Beta radiation is attracted/deflected to a positive electrode
Gamma unaffected by magnetic and electric fields
What are the two other radioactive decay processes in addition to alpha and beta? Positron Emission and Electron Capture.
Positron Emission occurs when a proton in a nucleus changes to a neutron and ejects a positron.
What is a positron thought of as a positive electron, same mass of electron but opposite charge.
what is electron capture? happens when a proton in the nucleus an electron and turns into a neutron. The atomic number will decrease (one fewer proton) and mass number is unchanged.
How can we think of electromagnetic energy? As Waves
What is electromagnetic energy characterized by? frequency, wavelength, and amplitude.
Wavelength x Frequency equals? Speed
What is Frequency? the number of wave peaks to pass a given point per unit of time.
Created by: maeallyn93