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organic chemistry

review of common terms

TermDefinition
addition reaction A reaction where atoms are added to a organic molecule and a double or triple bond is broken
alcohol An organic molecule containing an -OH functional group
aldehyde An organic molecule containing a -COH functional group
alkane An organic molecule which contains only single carbon to carbon bonds
alkene An organic molecule containing at least one double carbon bond
alkyne An organic molecule containing at least one triple carbon bond
amine An organic molecule which has an ammonia molecule where one or more of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by organic groups
decomposition When a complex molecule breaks apart to become two or more smaller molecules
double bond Sometimes atoms share two pairs of electrons to form a double bond (two covalent bonds)
empirical formula A simplified molecular formula. If you have a molecular formula and you can decrease all of the subscripts by some constant number
ester An organic molecule with a R-C(double bond)O-OR' functional group
functional group A common term for a group of atoms that cause a molecule to react in a particular way
hydrocarbon A molecule containing hydrogen and carbon
isomers Compounds having the same atomic number but differ in their chemical structure
IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, create rules for naming organic compounds
molecular formula A formula that shows the exact amount of all of the atoms in a molecule
organic acid An organic molecule with a -COOH functional group
organic compound A compound that contains carbon *excluding carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other carbonates
saturated The term given to organic molecules that contain only single bonds
structural formula A 2D picture of a molecule showing all of its atoms and bonds
substitution reaction A reaction where an atom is replaced by another atom
synthesis When a molecule is made of two or more smaller molecules
unsaturated The term given to an organic compound containing dobule or triple bonds
Methanol the simplest alcohol with a structure of R-OH
Ethanol A type of biofuel produced from plant materials; flammable, colorless chemical compound
R-COOH The General Formula of Carboxylic Acids a.k.a. Organic Acids
R-OH Alcohol (functional group)
saturated hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds
unsaturated hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons that have double or triple bonds
functiona group the parts of molecules used to differentiate classifications of organic molecules
Keytones Sweet or fruity smelling urine, the liver produces in excess then fat is used instead of glucose for energy?
amines An NH2 molecule bonded to a carbon atom (makes basic molecules)
amino acids Compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end.
carbohydrates Building block molecules are called monosaccharides; the atoms CHO (1,2,1) are present
-COO- What is the functional group of esters?
acetic acid ethanoic acid... is a derivative of ethanol
Phenol An organic compound in which an -OH group is attached to a carbon atom that is part of an aromatic carbon ring system.
dehydrogenation A form of oxidation in which hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule.
hydrogenation Adding hydrogen gas to an unsaturated fat to increase shelf life, turns it into trans
polymerization A chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer.
isomer Compounds with the same formula but different structures.
solvay process an industrial process for producing sodium carbonate from sodium chloride and ammonia and carbon dioxide
cracking Breaking up large hydrocarbons into smaller ones using heat.
aromatics Herbs, spices, and flavorings that create a savory smell and flavor in stocks, Cyclic organic compounds characterized by the presence of at least one 6 carbon benzene ring.
alkylation a chemical reaction in which an alkyl group is transferred from one molecule to another. in chemotherapy, alkylation leads to damage of the cancer cell DNA and cell death.
fullerines organic molecules which are shaped like geodesic domes
photosynthesis Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
disaccharide A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
ionic bond A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
polypetide cells create proteins by linking amino acids together into a chain
Created by: rufuspat
 

 



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