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AQA AS Level Chemistry

Ionisation Energy The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of atoms in a gaseous state to form uni-positive ions.
Atomic Number The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (aka proton number)
Relative Atomic mass (Ar) The average mass of an atom of an element, taking into account its naturally occurring isotopes, relative to 1/12 the relative atomic mass of an atom of carbon-12
Relative Molecular mass (Mr) The mass of a molecule compared to 1/12 the relative atomic mass of an atom of Carbon-12
The Ideal Gas equation PV=nRT
Empirical Formula The formula that represents the simplest ratio of atoms present in a compound.
Molecular Formula The actual number of atoms present in a compound
Atom Economy (Mass of desired product/Total mass of reactants)x 100
Percentage Yield The number of moles/grams of a specified product / theoretical max. no. of moles/grams of the product)x 100
Electronegativity The power of an atom to attract electron density in a covalent bond towards itself
van der Waals A type of intermolecular force of attraction that is caused by instantaneous dipoles and acts between all molecules and atoms
Dipole-Dipole Force An intermolecular force that results from the attraction between molecules with permanent dipoles
Hydrogen Bonding A type of intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom interacts with another electronegative atom
Intermolecular Forces Weak forces occurring between molecules
Displayed Formula This shows every atom and every bond in a molecule
Structural Formula This shows the unique arrangement of atoms in a molecule in a simplified form, without showing all of the bonds
Chain Isomer Isomers that have the same molecular formula but different types of chains, i.e.linear and branched
Positional Isomer Isomers that arise due to different positions of side chains, substituents, functional groups, double bonds, triple bonds etc...on the parent chain
Structural Isomer Having the same molecular formula but different structural arrangement
Homologous Series a family of organic compounds, with the same functional group, but different carbon chain length
Fractional Distillation The process of heating and separating fractions that boil over a range of different temperatures
Enthalpy Change An energy (heat) change measured under stated conditions of temperature and pressure
Standard enthalpy of formation The standard/average enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is formed from its constituent elements under standard conditions
Standard enthalpy of Combustion The standard/average enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is burned completely in oxygen under standard conditions.
Standard enthalpy of a reaction The standard/average heat energy given out of taken in as a reaction proceeds
Hess's Law The enthalpy change for a chemical reaction is the same regardless of the route taken from reactants to products
Created by: echareloreilly