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Mobile phase phase that moves in chromotography
Stationary phase phases that does not move in chromotography
Rf distance moved by component divided by distance moved by solvent form
Principles behind chromotography different components have different affinties, for SP and MP
What does the stationary phase do? interacts with components, slowing them down.
Adsorption solid SP, components attach to surface. Stronger the absorption the slower the components
Relative Solubiltiy liquid SP, components dissolve in solvent, greater the solubility the more the molecules are slowed down.
TLC SP is silica gel or alumina
TLC MP is liquid solvent
Why is TLC placed in a sealed container allow solvent vapours to saturate paper, and prevent solvent loss
What is used to make colourless compounds visible? UV light or locating agent.
Limitations of TLC similar solvents with similar Rf values, unknown compounds have no Rf reference, difficult to find a solvent that will separate all compounds.
GC Capillary column, detector, recorder, oven, column inlet, gas supply
GC SP silicone polymers, long chained alkanes with high boiling points
GC MP carrier gas eg nitrogen/helium
Why are different components slowed down? By different amounts.
How to improve separation different oven temperatures, different flow rates
Limitations similar chemicals have similar retention times, not all substances will be separated and detected, unknown compounds will have unknown retention times.
How to increase reliability check GC of sample against reference containing suspected sample
Uses of GCMS forensics, airports, environment, space probes.
Created by: 07blandforderin