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CHM 2211L

Final Exam

Displacement Functional groups replace other functional groups
Dehydration Removal of water
Acetylation Adding an acetyl group
Diazotization/Coupling the sulfanilic acid sodium salt reacts with sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid(nitrous acid) to form an unstable diazonium salt; the diazonium ion is used “in situ” and reacts with N,N-dimethylaniline to form an acidic azo
Saponification The reaction of a fat or oil with aqueous hydroxide ion to yield carboxylic acid salts of fatty acids (soap). Converts oil/fat (triglyceride) into soap.
Hydrolysis The reverse reaction between water and the ester to yield an alcohol and carboxylic acid
Esterification ­the forward reaction between the alcohol and acid to form an ester and water
Benzoin Condensation A reaction where two aromatic aldehydes condense to form a acyloin derivative in which a base catalyst is used. This reaction can form symmetrical or unsymmetrical acyloin derivatives.
addition polymerization Addition polymers are formed when the monomer units add to one another to form a long-chain polymer. The monomer units usually contain carbon-carbon double bonds (alkenes). Teflon.
condensation Polymerization formed by the reaction of bifunctional or poly functional molecules, with the elimination of a small molecule (such as H2O, NH3, or HCl) as a side product. Nylon.
Oxidation/Reduction is the loss of electrons by an atom [lose H or gain O]; is the gain of electrons by an atom [gain H or lose O]
Simple distillation Purifying liquid
Extraction to take something out of a mixture/compound
Drying agents absorb excess moisture and water
Gravity filtration separate solid from liquid using gravity, a funnel, and filter paper
Neutralization a chemical reaction where a base and an acid react to form a salt
Salting out a purification method that utilizes the reduced solubility of certain molecules in a solution of very high ionic strength
Steam distillation distillation for temperature sensitive molecules like aromatic molecules. Adding steam depresses the boiling point of these molecules, allowing them to evaporate at lower temperatures
Vacuum filtration similar to gravity filtration, but utilizes a vacuum
Recrystallization a purification method
TLC analysis thin layer chromatography used to separate mixtures
Rotary evaporator (vacuum distillation) gently removes solvents from samples by evaporation. lowers the pressure and therefore the boiling point
Reflux setup similar to distillation but allows the gas to drip back into the flask. Used when a reaction needs to be heated in order to take place and when we don’t want to separate the gas from the reaction flask
Melting point determination Shows the purity of a solid
IR analysis Shows the functional groups
Base trap neutralizes acidic vapors
Titration used to determine the concentration of a solution
Nucleophile donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction
Carbocation molecule with a positively charged carbon ion
Alpha hydrogens hydrogens that are directly bonded to an alpha carbon
Carbanion or enolate a carbon with a negative charge
Aldol Alpha-beta hydroxy ketone or aldehyde
FDA Food and Drug Administration
Color index numerical expression that determines the color of an object
Electrophile positively charged species that are attracted to an electron rich center
Electron donating group an atom or functional group that donates some of its electron density from a conjugated π system via resonance or inductive electron withdrawal; -CH3
Electron withdrawing group is an atom or functional group that removes electron density from a conjugated π system via resonance or inductive electron withdrawal; -COOH
Addition polymer a polymer that is formed by an addition reaction. The monomer usually contains a double bond, the pi bond gets broken and two new single bonds forms
Condensation polymer formed by the reaction of bifunctional or poly functional molecules, with the elimination of a small molecule (such as H2O, NH3, or HCl) as a side product.
Homopolymer Polymers that contain only a single type of repeat unit
Meta directors Non-halogen groups with atoms that are more electronegative than carbon, such as a carboxylic acid group (CO2H) draw substantial electron density from the pi system.
Ortho/para directors Groups with unshared pairs of electrons, such as the amino group of aniline, are strongly activating. Such activating groups donate those unshared electrons to the pi system.
Dimerize a compound formed by combination of two identical molecules.
Free radical atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons
Initiation involves the homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of the benzoyl peroxide to form benzoyl free radical (R)
Propagation involves the free radical addition to another styrene monomer. This step repeats for hundreds or thousands of times, building up the polymer chain.
Termination involves the reaction of two free radicals to make a covalent bond and end the polymer build up
Limiting reactant The reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product that can be formed.
Theoretical yield the amount of product that would be formed if the reaction went to completion.
Vitamin B1 thiamine
Inorganic coenzymes tightly-bound cofactors
cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity; vitamins
Amino acid biologically important organic compounds made from amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each
Polypeptides a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide
Reducing agent is the element or compound in a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction that donates an electron to another species
benzoyl peroxide a radical initiator
KMnO­4 test Shows positive test for: aldehydes, alkenes and phenols; negative: purple; positive: yellow
Br2/CH2Cl2 test (Bromine test) test for the presence of carbon to carbon double bonds and phenols; negative=brown; positive=clear
Rotary evaporator gently removes solvents from samples by evaporation. lowers the pressure and therefore the boiling point
Azeotrope a liquid mixture with a constant boiling point and composition
Distillate a liquid product condensed from vapor during distillation
Filtrate Material, especially liquid, that has passed through a filter
Salt plates Used in IRs to hold the substance
Mobile phase the part of the chromatographic system which carries the solutes through the stationary phase.
Silica gel plate stationary phase in thin layer chromatography
stationary phase is the substance fixed in place for the chromatography procedure.
essential oil volatile constituent of seeds, bark, or roots of plants
Leaving group molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage
Nonionic detergent characterized by their uncharged, hydrophilic head groups based on polyoxyethylene or a glycoside
Tautomers isomers that are rapidly interconverted
In situ made in solution as opposed to a premade reactant
a,b unsaturated ketones and aldehydes (or enones and enals) ketone followed by a double bond between the alpha and beta carbons in respect to the carbonyl
coupler (coupling reaction?) variety of reactions where two hydrocarbon fragments are coupled with the aid of a metal catalyst
F,D,&C dye Food, drug and cosmetic dye
azo dye example of this is tartrazine which is used to dye wool and silk by making salt linkages with the NH3 zwitterionic sites on the fiber
chromophore a simple unsaturated group that is attached to a benzene ring or fused aromatic ring. This is the part of the molecule responsible for its color
auxochrome an electron donating group attached to a benzene ring or fused aromatic ring
copolymer a polymer derived from two (or more) monomeric species
soap carboxylic acid salt
cationic dyes (basic dyes) have -C+NR2 (+) groups that interact with the -COO(-) groups (zwitterions) in the wool, silk or nylon fibers. Ionic bonds are formed between NEGATIVE sites on the fiber and POSITIVE groups on the dye molecule
anionic dye (acid dyes) have -SO3(-) groups that interact with the =NH3(+) groups (zwitterions) in the wool, silk or nylon fibers. Ionic bonds are formed between POSITIVE sites on the fiber and NEGATIVE groups on the dye molecule
analgesic substances that reduce swelling and pain
antipyretic substances that reduce fever
% recovery amount recovered from a recrystallization
% yield (actual/theoretical)x100
actual yield the amount of product yielded from a reaction
ylide a compound or intermediate with positive and negative charge on adjacent atoms
organic coenzymes inorganic ions such as metal ions (Cu+2, K+1, etc.)
protein a large biological molecule consisting of one or more chains of amino acids
nitric acid (as oxidizing agent) a powerful oxidizing agent and reacts violently with many organic materials and the reactions may be explosive.
oxidizing agent substance that removes electrons from another reactant
builders water softeners that remove calcium ions from solution
triglyceride a fat that gets converted into a soap via saponification
saponification the reaction of a fat or oil with aqueous hydroxide ion to yield carboxylic acid salts of fatty acids
hydrophilic water loving
hydrophobic water hating
micelle cluster ball with dirt and grease particles that are left behind in water from soap that doesn’t dissolve
curdling a reaction where an emulsion is broken down
biodegradable to be consumed by microorganisms and return to compounds found in nature
plate spotting placing too much dye or substance on a TLC chromatography paper
Rf value physical property of the substance under the conditions of the analysis in chromatography
Iodoform Test Tests for methyl ketones and methyl aldehydes; yellow=positive
Benedict’s test test for aliphatic aldehydes; red=positive
semicarbazide used in TLC chromatography as a detection agent for alpha-keto acids
2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine tests for carbonyl groups of ketones and aldehydes
pheramone a substance that provides a chemical means of communication
Created by: JacobGant



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