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# TLC 7th Math Vocab

### Chapters 1-7

Question | Answer |
---|---|

absolute deviation | the absolute value of the difference of x and a given value |

absolute value equation | an equation containing an absolute value expression |

algebraic expression | an expression with at least one variable |

base | the factor being multiplied in a power |

best-fitting line | a line that corresponds to a trend in a graphed data set |

causation | when a strong correlation does not imply cause and effect between paired variables |

compound inequality | 2 inequalities connected by and or or |

compound interest | interest earned on an initial investment and previously earned interest modeled by I=PRT |

consistent dependent system | a linear system with infinity solutions (same line) |

consistent independent system | a linear system with exactly 1 solution because they are distinct intersecting lines |

constant | a number |

constant of variation | the constant k in the direct variation equation, a non-zero constant |

converse | the statement formed by exchanging the hypothesis and conclusion of a conditional statement- is not necessarily true |

cross product | finding this is the first step in the preferred method for solving an equation with a ratio equal to a ratio |

decay factor | 1 - the decay rate is this; this is what decreases exponentially |

decay rate | r in the exponential decay model; a percent of decreased (which is then subtracted from 1 to make the decay factor) |

dependent variable | output |

direct variation | the relationship of 2 variables x and y if there is a nonzero number k such that y=kx (also called directly proportional) |

domain | the set of x's in a function |

elimination/combination | linear ______-an equation obtained by adding one equation in a 19 across to another equation in a 19 across- also, one of our methods for solving systems |

equivalent equations | equations with the same solution, or value |

equivalent inequalities | two inequalities with the same solutions |

exponent | represents the number of times the base is multiplied |

exponential decay | an exponential function when a>0 and 0<b<1, and it decreases exponentially over a time period |

exponential function | a function in the form y=ab^x that is nonlinear; a does not equal 0, b > 0, and b does not equal 1 |

exponential growth | this is an exponential function where a>0 and b>1, and it increases exponentially over a time period |

extrapolation | using a line or equation to approximate a value OUTSIDE the range of known values |

family of functions | functions with graphs with common characterisitics- if in family are transformations of the parent |

formula | literal equation showing a rule for a certain relation |

function | a relationship in which each X or input has one corresponding Y or output |

function notation | a way to define or name a relationship in which each x has exactly one corresponding y: f(x)=y |

graph of a system of linear inequalities | a graph showing all solutions in the system |

graph of an inequality | a set of points which represent all solutions of an inequality on a number line |

graph of an inequality in 2 variables | a set of points which represent all solutions of an inequality on a coordinate plane |

growth factor | one plus the growth rate is this; this is what grows exponentially |

growth rate | r in the exponential growth model; a percent of increase (which is then added to 1 to make the growth factor) |

half-plane | in a coordinate plane, the region of each side of a boundary line |

identity | an equation that IS true for all values of the variable |

inconsistent system | a linear system that has no solution (parallel lines) |

independent variable | input |

interpolation | using a line or equation to approximate a value BETWEEN two known values |

inverse operations | two operations that undo each other |

irrational number | a number that cannot be written as a quotient of two integers that is a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal |

line of fit | a line used to model the trend in data on a scatter plot |

linear equation | an equation whose graph is a line |

linear function | a function you can write as y=mx+b and its graph is a line |

linear inequality in 2 variables | an equation that can be written as y is less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, or not equal to mx+b |

linear regression | the statistical process of finding the best-fitting line to model a data set |

literal equation | an equation in which the coefficients and constants have been replaced by letters |

negative correlation | a correlation where y tends to decrease as x increases |

negative exponent | when a base is raised to a negative power, it is equivalent to the reciprocal (a^-n = 1/a^n) when the base isn't zero |

open sentence | an equation or inequality containing an algebraic expression |

order of magnitude | this is the power of ten nearest to a given quantity often used to estimate or roughly calculate |

order of operations | the established procedure for evaluating expressions with more than one operation |

parallel | two lines are this if their ratios of rise to run are equivalent |

parent linear function | the original and simplest line in the family of linear functions |

perfect square | a number multiplied by itself- one of the numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, 25 ... |

perpendicular | two lines are this if their ratios of rise to run are opposite reciprocals |

point-slope form | y-y1 = m(x-x1) where point is (x1, y1) and slope is m |

positive correlation | a correlation where y tends to increase as x increases |

power | an expression that represents repeated multiplication of the same factor |

precision | how much detail an instrument or tool is capable of measuring |

proportion | an equation in which a fraction is set equal to a fraction |

quadrant | one of the four regions of the coordinate plane (divided by axes) |

radicand | number underneath radical symbol, or sign showing the square root of the number underneath it; the thing you're finding the square root of |

range | the set of y's in a function |

rate | ratio comparing two amounts with different units |

rate of change | a comparison of 2 different quantities that are changing; a ratio to compare the dependent variable change to the independent variable change |

ratio | a description of a relationship between two quantities |

real numbers | one of the set of numbers that includes those that can be written as a fraction and those that cannot be written as a fraction |

relation | any collection of ordered pairs (x,y) |

relatively no correlation | when x and y points on a scatter plot have no apparent relationship |

scale | the ratio of the length in a drawing to the actual object's length |

scale drawing | a drawing using a scale to make a smaller or larger representation of an original object |

scale model | a 3D model using a scale to make a smaller or larger representation of an original object |

scatter plot | a graph of pairs of numbers (x,y) that represent real life quantities |

slope | ratio of rise to run- the number of units a nonvertical line rises compared to the number of units it runs (slantiness of a line) |

slope-intercept form | y=mx+b, a line m=slope and b=y int |

solution of a system of linear equations | an ordered pair that works in each/ALL equation(s) in the system |

solution of a system of linear inequalities | an ordered pair that works in each inequality in the system |

solution of an inequality in 2 variables | an x and y ordered pair that produces a true statement when substituted into an inequality |

square root | when you multiply a number by itself once to get a product, the number is the ___________ of that product |

standard form | Ax+By=C |

substitution | linear ______- one of our methods for solving systems where one equation set equal to a variable is substituted into the other equation |

system of linear equations | a system or set of equations which are all linear in the same variables |

system of linear inequalities | two or more inequalities with the same variables (like a set) |

unit rate | a comparison of two quantities with a denominator of one |

variable | a letter used to represent one or more numbers or a changing quantity |

verbal model | using words, labels, and math symbols to describe a real life situation |

x-intercept | where a line intersects the x-axis on the graph |

y-intercept | where a line crosses the y-axis on the graph |

zero exponent | when a base is raised to the zero power, the answer is always 1 (when the base isn't zero) |

zero of a function | for the function f, any value x so that f(x) = 0 so, it is an x-intercept of the function's graph # |

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