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Roosevelt Acc Chem

Review of terms from second semester

The reactant that determines the amount of product formed is called the limiting reactant
When you determine theoretical yield you do a/an calculation
When you determine the actual yield you do a/an experiment
Which is generally greater, the actual yield or theoretical yield? theoretical
Standard temperature and pressure is 1 atm and 0 C.
For gas law problems, temperature must be in ______________ Kelvin
What are the 4 variables that describe a gaseous system? pressure, volume, temperature, amount (moles or mass)
Pressure and amount of gas are _______________ related. directly
Temperature and volume are ________________ related. directly
Pressure and volume are __________________ related. inversely
What are intermolecular forces (IMF)? forces between molecules or particles
London dispersion force temporary dipole created by electron cloud repulsion
Dipole-Dipole force force between 2 polar molecules with permanent polar ends
Hydrogen bonding force created when a hydrogen is directly attached to N, O, or F.
List the 3 IMF in order of weakest to strongest London dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding
As the IMF of a substance becomes stronger, the melting point and boiling points of the substance become HIGHER OR LOWER HIGHER
TRUE OR FALSE: A substance can have all 3 types of IMF. TRUE
Define solute the substance being dissolved
Define solvent the substance doing the dissolving
What 3 factors affect the rate of dissolving? temperature, surface area of the solute, stirring
What types of compounds are soluble in water? polar covalent or ionic
What does "like dissolves like" mean? substances that are alike in polarity or IMF will dissolve each other
What happens when you add more crystals to a saturated solution? they sink to the bottom of the container
What happens when you add more crystals to an unsaturated solution? they dissolve
What happens when you add more crystals to a supersaturated solution? the solution crystalizes into a solid
The solubility of most solid substances INCREASES OR DECREASES as temperature increases. INCREASES
The solubility of gases INCREASES OR DECREASES as temperature increases. DECREASES
Pressure changes the solubility of _____________ and ______________. gases and liquids
Molarity describes the concentration of solutions
Units for molarity moles/liter
What do colligative properties depend on? the concentration or number of particles
What happens to the boiling point of water when a solute is added? increases (boiling point elevation)
What happens to the freezing point of water when a solute is added? decreases (freezing point depression)
A substance that breaks into ions in a solution to carry an electrical change is called a/an ___________________. electrolyte
A substance that doesn't ionize in water (doesn't break apart) is called a/an __________________. non-electrolyte
Chemical equilibrium is when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
A double arrow signifies a _______________ reaction. reversible
A single arrow signifies a _______________ reaction. completion
The formation of a precipitate of the formation of a gas in a open container are both ________________ reactions. completion
The equilibrium constant (Keq) is a ratio of products to reactants (excluding solids and liquids)
If Keq is greater than one PRODUCTS OR REACTANTS are favored. PRODUCTS (or forward reaction)
If Keq is less than one PRODUCTS OR REACTANTS are favored. REACTANTS (or reverse reaction)
What type of substances are Ksp written for? insoluble or slightly soluble
TRUE OR FALSE: Ksp uses the same rules as Keq> TRUE
What do we call H30+? hydronium ion
TRUE OR FALSE: H+ is the same as H30+ TRUE
Define Arrhenius acid ionizes into H+
Define Bronsted-Lowry acid Proton donor
Define Arrhenius base ionizes into OH-
Define Bronsted-Lowry base Proton acceptor
When dealing with acid-base pairs, an acid has a conjugate _________. base
When dealing with acid-base pairs, a base has a conjugate __________. acid
Strong acids or bases ionize ________________. completely or 100%
Weak acids or bases ionize __________________. partially
Substances with a pH less than 7 are _________. acids
Substances with a pH greater than 7 are ____________. bases
Substances with a pH of 7 are called ________________. neutral
A method for finding the concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of the solution with a solution of known concentration is called __________________. titration
The point in a titration where the moles of acid are equal to the moles of base is called the _____________________. equivalence point
The point in a titration where the indicator changes color is called the _______________________. end point
At the equivalence point in the titration of a strong acid with a strong base, the pH will be _______________. 7
The long glass tube with graduated markings that is used in a titration is called a __________________. buret
When a strong acid and strong base react to form an ionic salt and water we call this reaction a __________________ reaction neutralization
The standard solution in a titration is the solution for which the concentration is KNOWN OR UNKNOWN. KNOWN
In order for a reaction to occur, the reactants must _________________ with enough ________________ and the correct ____________________. collide energy orientation
When reactants collide with enough energy and the correct orientation, a/an _____________________ is formed which can then form a product. activated complex
The amount of energy needed for an effective collision is called __________________ energy. activation
In an exothermic reaction, the energy of the products is HIGHER OR LOWER than the energy of the reactants. LOWER
In an endothermic reaction, the energy of the products is HIGHER OR LOWER than the energy of the reactants. HIGHER
How does increasing the temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction? It increases the energy of the collisions.
How does increasing the concentration affect the rate of a chemical reaction? It increases the number of collisions.
How does stirring affect the rate of a chemical reaction? It increases the number of collisions.
How does adding a catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reaction? It lowers activation energy or gives and alternate energy pathway
How does increasing the surface area affect the rate or a chemical reaction? It increases the number of collision places.
Enthalpy is heat (delta H)
Entropy is disorder (delta S)
TRUE OR FALSE: In nature things become more organized. FALSE
Spontaneous reactions: (positive or negative) delta G is delta H is delta S is negative negative positive
Reactions that are never spontaneous: (positive or negative) delta G is delta H is delta S is positive positive negative
Created by: JKSW2014



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