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Chap 8 - Chem

What is an electron configuration? A description of the orbitals occupied by electrons.
In a orbital diagram, a half arrow pointing up means what? It is used to represent an electron in an orbital with a spin up.
If there are 2 electrons in an orbital, then their spins must be in what directions? opposite
What is the max amount of electrons per orbital? 2
What is the Pauli Exclusion principle? No orbital may have more than two electrons, and they must have opposite spins. (one arrow up, the other down).
The lower the value of the ___________, the less energy the sublevel has principle quantum number
Are electrons are more or less attracted to a nucleus with a 2+ charge than a nucleus with a 1+ charge? more
What is "ground state"? The lowest energy level of an electron.
What is Hunds rule? When filling orbitals that have the same energy (degenerate), place one electron in each before completing pairs (parallel spins-half arrows pointing up).
What is the Aufbau principle? Energy levels and sublevels fill from lowest energy to high?
In an atom, then number of these must equal the number of protons. electrons
What is an electron configuration? The electron configuration is a listing of the sublevels in order of filling with the number of electrons in that sublevel written as a superscript.
What are valence electrons? Usually the highest level s and p electrons.
What is important about transition metals and valence electrons? The concept of the valence electron is less useful for a transition metal than for a main group element because they are less predictable.
Electrons in lower energy shells are called what? core electrons
The chemical properties of elements are largely determined by what electrons? valence electrons.
What is the electron configuration of Cr? [Ar] 4s^1 3d^5
What is the electron configuration of Cu? [Ar] 4s^1 3d^10
What is the electron configuration of Mo? [Kr] 5s^1 4d^5
What is the electron configuration of Ru? [Kr] 5s^1 4d^7
What is the electron configuration of Pd? [Kr] 5s^0 4d^10
The noble gases usually have 8 valence electrons, but this one only has 2. Which is it? He
Why are noble gases so nonreactive? They have completely full valence shells (s & p sublevels).
The average size of an element's atoms. atomic radius
The size of an atom is related to the distance the _______ electrons are from the nucleus. valence
Traversing down a group adds a ___________. principal energy level.
The size of an atom gets ________ down the column of the periodic table. larger
What is Ionization Energy (IE)? Minimum energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or ion
Electron configurations that result in unpaired electrons mean that the atom or ion will have a net magnetic field; this is called _________. paramagnetism
Electron configurations that result in all paired electrons mean that the atom or ion will have no magnetic field; this is called __________. diamagnetism
Outer electrons are _________ from the nucleus by the core electrons and so are harder to hold onto. shielded.
The shielding causes the outer electrons to....? move further away from the nucleus
Atomic radii of transition metals are ___________ across the d block. roughly the same size
Atomic size decreases as you move from across a _______. period.
Atomic size increases as you move down a ________. group.
Created by: aiur100