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# Chapter 17

### Free Energy and Thremodynamics

There is a 'heat tax' for every energy transaction
The _______________ Law of Thermodynamics sates the energy is conserved in chemical processes. First
Identify the process that is spontaneous. rusting of iron
__________________ is a thermodynamic function that increases w/ the number of energetically equivalent ways to arrange components of a system to achieve a particular state. Entropy
The ________________ Law of Thermodynamics states that for any spontaneous reaction, the entropy of the universe increase. Second
Which of the following processes have a Δs>0? CH4(g) + H2O(g) --> Co(g) + 3 H(g)
Endothermic processes decrease the entropy of the surroundings, at constant T and P.
What is the sign of ΔSuniv for a biological system? positive
Which of the following relationships is correct at constant T and P? ΔG is proportional to -ΔSuniv
Consider a reaction that has a positive ΔH and a positive ΔS. This reaction will be spontaneous only at high temps and nonspontaneous at low temps
Consider a reaction that has a negative ΔH and a positive ΔS. This reaction will be spontaneous at all temps
Consider a reaction that has a positive ΔH and a negative ΔS. This reaction will be nonspontaneous at all temps
Consider a reaction that has a negative ΔH and a negative ΔS This reaction will be nonspontaneous only at high temps This reaction will be spontaneous at low temp
2 N2O(g) --> 2 N2(g) + O2(g) a negative ΔH and a positive ΔS
3O2 --> 2O3(g) a positive ΔH and a negative ΔS
H2O --> H2O(g) a positive ΔH and a positive ΔS
H2O --> H2O(s) H2)(I) --> H2O(s) a negative ΔH and a negative ΔS
The _______________ Law of thermodynamics states the entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is is zero. Third
For a given compound, list the decreasing order of entropy for a liquid. solid. and gas. gas>liquid>solid
Entropy is an extensive property
Free atoms have greater entropy than molecules
What can change the direction of a reversible reaction? change in temp, pressure, volume
Give the name of the reaction that achieves the theoretical limits with respect to free energy in thermodynamics reversible reaction
If ΔGrxn>0 the reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction
ΔGrxn=0 at equilibrium
ΔGrxn is positive and the reaction is spontaneous in the reverse direction
ΔGrxn is negative and the reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction
ΔGrxn is zero and the reaction is at equilibrium
Which of the following reactions will have the largest equilibrium constant (K) at 298K? 2 Hg(g) + O2(g) --> 2HgO(s) ΔG=-180.8 kJ
In which of the following processes does the molecules become more orderly? Identify the change in state that does not have an increase in entropy. water freezing
Which of the following processes have a ΔS>0? potassium iodide dissolves in pure water
Which of the following processes have a ΔS<0? water freezes, methyl alcohol condenses, propanol (g, at 555 K) --> propanol (g, at 400 K) CO2 (g) --> CO2 (s)
Which of the following processes shows a decrease in entropy of the system? 2 NO (g) + O2 (g) --> 2 NO2 (g)
Which one of the following has the highest standard molar entropy, S, at 25C? I2 (g)
Identify the compound that is NOT an allotrope of carbon. ethanol
Which one of the following would be expected to have the lowest standard molar entropy, S an 25C? C10H22 (s)
Identify the compound w/ the lowest standard free energy of formation NaCl (s)
Identify the compound w/ the highest standard free energy of formation O3 (g)
Identify the compound w/ the standard free energy of formation equal to zero. H2 (g)
Q=K Equilibrium
Q<K DG<0
Q>K ΔG>0
Q=1 Standard state
Q>1 ΔG>ΔG
Q<1 ΔG<ΔG
Created by: karmabites