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Chapter 16

Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium

The antidote for ethylene glycol poisoning is the administration of ______________. ethyl alcohol (alcoholic drinks)
An important buffer in the blood is a mixture of _______________. carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion
Identify a good buffer. significant amounts of both a weak acid and its conjugate base
A buffer is most resistant to pH chane when [acid] = [conjugate base]
Define buffer capacity. the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer w/o destroying its effectiveness
The equivalence point is where the amount of acid equals the amount of base during any acid-base titration.
When titrating a strong monoprotic acid and KOH at 25 C, the pH will be equal to 7 at the equivalence point
When titrating a weak monoprotic acid and NaOH at 25 C, the pH will be greater than 7 at the equivalence point
When titrating a monoprotic strong acid and a weak base at 25 C, the pH will be less than 7 at the equivalence point
Stalacites and stalagmites form us ______________ precipitates out of the water evaporating in underground caves. calcium carbonate
Give the equation for an unsaturated solution in comparing Q w/ Ksp. Q<Ksp
Give the equation for an saturated solution in comparing Q w/ Ksp. Q=Ksp
Give the equation for an supersaturated solution in comparing Q w/ Ksp. Q>Ksp
A solution containing AgNO3 is mixed with a solution of NaCl to form a solution that is 0.10 M in AgNO3 and 0.075 in NaCl. What will happen once these solutions are mixed? Ksp(AgCl) = 1.77 x 10^-10 Silver chloride will precipitate out of solution, leavig a saturated AgCl soultion
A solution containing CaCl2 is mixed with a solution of Li2C2O4 to form a solution that is 4.75 x 10^-5 M in AgNO3 and 0.075 in NaCl. What will happen once these solutions are mixed? Ksp(CaC2O4) = 2.3 x 10-9 Nothing will happen since Ksp > Q for all possible precipitants
A solution containing CaCl2 is mixed with a solution of Li2C2O4 to form a solution that is 3.5 x 10-4 M in calcium ion and 2.33 x 10-4 M in oxalate ion. What will happen once these solutions are mixed? Ksp(CaC2O4) = 2.3 x 10-9 A precipitate will form since Q>Ksp for calcium oxalate
Which of the following solutions is a good buffer system? A solution that is 0.10 M HCN and 0.10 M LiCN A solution that is 0.10 M HC2H3O2 and 0.10 M LiC2H3O2
A buffer resists pH change by neutralizing added acids and bases
The pH does not increase drastically b/c the NaOH reacts with the ______________ present in the buffer solution. hydrazoic acid
The pH does not decrease drastically b/c the HCl reacts with the ______________ present in the buffer solution. chloroacetate ion
The highest pH for an effective buffer occurs when the base is how many times as concentrated as the acid? 10
Which of the following acids (listed w/ pKa values) and their conjugate base would form a buffer w/a pH of 8.10? HClO, pKa = 7.54
Which of the following acids (listed w/ Ka values) and their conjugate base would form a buffer w/ a pH of 2.34? HClO2, Ka = 1.1 x 10-2
A 1.0 L buffer solution is 0.250 M HC2H3O2 and 0.050 M LiC2H3O2. Which of the following actions will destroy the buffer? adding 0.050 moles of HCl
A 1.0 L buffer solution is 0.250 M HC2H3O2 and 0.250 M NaC2H3O2. Which of the following actions will destroy the buffer? adding 0.050 moles of KOH
Identify the pH of normal blood. 7.4
Identify the most common indicator. phenolphthalein
Identify the indicator that can be used at the lowest pH. crystal violet
Identify the indicator that has two endpoints alizarin
Identify the indicator that can be used at the highest pH. alizarin yellow R
Which of the following compounds will have the highest molar solubility in pure water? MgCO3, Ksp = 6.82 x 10-6 Fe(OH)3, Ksp = 2.79 x 10-39
Which of the following compounds will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water? Fes
Identify the salts that are in hard water. CaCO3 and MgCO3
Which of the following compounds solubility will bot be affected by a low pH in solution? AgCl
Determine the molar solubility of CaSO4 in a solution containing 0.12 M Na2SO4. Ksp(CaSO4) = 2.4 x 10-5 2.0 x 10-4 M
Give the expression for the stability product constant for PbCl2 [Pb2][Cl-]2
Give the expression for the stability product constant for BaF2 [Ba2+][F-]2
Give the expression for the stability product constant for Ca3(PO4)2 [Ca2+]3[PO4^3-]2
Give the expression for the stability product constant for Cr2(CO3)3 [Cr3+]2[CO3^2-]3
Identify the compound that is acid-insoluble. As2S3
Identify the compound that is base-insoluble ZnS
Define entropy. a thermodynamic function that increases w/ a number of energetically equivalent ways to arrange the components of a system to achieve a particular state.
Define the second law of thermodynamics For any spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increase
Give the standard state for a gas 1 atm
Give the standard state for a liquid 1 atm;25 C
Give the standard state for a solid 1 atm;25C
Give the standard state for a solution 1 M;1 atm
Define the thrid law of thermodynamic The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero (0 K) is zero
Define allotrope two or more forms of an element existing in the same size
A sample contains Ba3(PO4)2, CdS, AgCl, NH4Cl, and ZnS. Identify the precipitate after the addition of 6 M HCl. AgCl
A sample contains Ba3(PO4)2, CdS, AgCl, NH4Cl, and ZnS. Identify the precipitate after the addition of 6 M HCl, then H2S and 0.2 M HCl. CuS
A sample contains Ba3(PO4)2, CdS, AgCl, NH4Cl, and ZnS. Identify the precipitate after the addition of 6 M HCl; H2S and 0.2 M HCl; and OH- to a pH of 8. MnS
A sample contains Ba3(PO4)2, CdS, AgCl, NH4Cl, and ZnS. Identify the precipitate after the addition of 6 M HCl; H2S and 0.2 M HCl; OH- to a pH of 8; and (NH4)2HPO4 with NH3. Ca3(PO4)
A sample contains Ba3(PO4)2, CdS, AgCl, NH4Cl, and ZnS. Identify the soluble ions after the addition of 6 M HCl; H2S and 0.2 M HCl; OH- to a pH of 8; and (NH4)2HPO4 with NH3. NH4Cl
A ligand is a molecule or ion that acts as a Lewis base
Describe the solubility of Al(OH)3 with respect to pH soluble at low pH, insoluble in pH-neutral solution, and soluble at high pH
Gives what happens at low pH for aluminum hydroxide. Al(H2O)63+ dissolves
Gives what happens at neutral pH for aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 precipitates
Gives what happens at high pH for aluminum hydroxide Al(H2O)2(OH)4- dissolves
pH = 7 equivalence point of a strong acid/strong base titration
pH = pKa half-way to equivalence point of a weak acid/strong base titration
pH > 7 equivalence point of a weak acid/strong base titration
pH < 7 equivalence point of a weak base/strong acid titration
pH = pKa2 3/4 of the way to second equivalence point of a diprotic acid/strong base titration
Created by: karmabites