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Chemistry GCSE

lithosphere cold and rigid outer part of the earth; consists of upper mantle and crust
subduction when one tectonic plate (higher density oceanic plate) slides underneath another (lower density continental plate) and is partially remelted in the magma
iron-rich basalt lava that is quite runny and has fairly safe eruptions
silica-rich rhyolite thicker lava that results in more violent and catastrophic eruptions; makes pumice, volcanic ash and bombs
thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate calcium carbonate --> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO3 --> CaO + CO2
composite material a material that combines the best properties of each component material
extraction of copper from copper ore copper oxide + carbon --> copper + carbon dioxide
electrolysis the use of an electric current to break down compounds into simpler substances
electrolyte the liquid/solution in which the electricity passes through (e.g. copper(II) sulfate in electrolysis of copper)
anode of copper electrolysis positive electrode Cu - 2e- --> Cu2+ (oxidation process b/c electrons are lost)
cathode of copper electrolysis negative electrode Cu2+ + 2e- --> Cu (reduction b/c electrons are gained)
alloy a mixture of a metal with another element (usually another metal)
smart alloy a mixture of two or more metals or non-metals that changes its properties according to the environment (e.g. nitinol)
rusting oxidation reaction (oxygen added to substance): iron + oxygen + water --> hydrated iron(III) oxide
aluminium oxide formed when aluminium comes into contact with air and water as a protective layer; will not flake off.
haber process the large scale production of ammonia with nitrogen and hydrogen: N2 + 2H2 ⇌ 2NH3
neutralisation acid + base --> salt + water
neutralisation of acid with carbonate acid + carbonate --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
fertilisers chemicals that give plants essential chemical elements needed for growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and urea
eutrophication the excessive growth and decay of aquatic plants due to increased levels of nutrients in water, which result in oxygen levels dropping so fish and animals die out
electrolysis of sodium chloride produces sodium hydroxide in the solution, hydrogen at the cathode and chlorine at the anode
cathode of sodium chloride electrolysis 2H+ + 2e- --> H2 (reduction)
anode of sodium chloride electrolysis 2Cl- - 2e- --> Cl2 (oxidation)
Created by: nadiabacha