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P2

Physics GCSE

TermDefinition
photocell a flat silicon surface that captures light energy from the sun and transforms it into an electrical direct current
passive solar heating when visible light and infrared radiation passes through glass into a room, is absorbed by objects, and re-emit longer wavelength IR radiation
dynamo effect the way in which electricity can be generated by moving a wire near a magnet and vice versa
alternating current (AC) an electric current that changes direction of flow repeatedly; produced by generators
direct current (DC) an electrical current that only flows in one direction; produced by batteries
production of electricity in power stations fuel burnt > water turned to steam > steam drives turbine > turbine turns generator > electricity produced
greenhouse gases gases that trap heat and warm the earth; includes carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane
greenhouse effect short wavelength EM radiation absorbed by earth > heats up > earth radiates longer wavelength IR radiation > greenhouse gases absorb these
step-down transformer reduces voltage for safer use for consumers
step-up transformer increasing voltage to decrease the current so that the wire doesnt heat up due to collisions and no heat is lost to the environment
electric current the flow of electric charge from the power supply to the components in the circuit
cost of using an appliance for a certain length of time total cost (p) = no. kilowatt hours used (kWh) x cost per unit (p)
formula for energy supplied (kWh) energy supplied (kWh) = power (kW) x time (h)
background radiation radiation that occurs naturally around us; comes from radioactive substances in rocks etc, and cosmic rays
ionisation radiation that turns atoms into ions (charged particles)that can damage living cells
use of alpha radiation in smoke detectors; they cause ionisation of air so small current flows - smoke absorbs alpha particles, current is reduced, alarm sounds
use of beta radiation paper thickness gauge as beta particles are absorbed when passed through paper; used in tracers
use of gamma rays used to treat cancer; it kills cancerous cells; also used in non-destructive tests
comet small body w/ core of frozen gas (ice) and dust with trail of debris. have highly elliptical orbits around the sun
red shift the shifting of wavelengths of light towards red end of the spectrum; e.g. further away a galaxy is, the greater the red shift (so they travel faster than those closer to us)
end stages of heavy-weight star star > red supergiant > supernova > neutron star or black hole
end stages of medium weight star star > red giant > planetary nebula > white dwarf
geocentric model theory that the earth is the centre of the universe; suggested by ptolemy
copernican model idea that planets sat on spheres, stars didnt move, the sun was the centre of the universe, earth rotated 24 hrs and earth takes 1 year to orbit the sun
Created by: nadiabacha