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Science C3 Topic 4

GCSE edexcel further additional chemistry: gases, equilibria, ammonia

At room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure, one mole of any gas occupies what volume, and why? 24dm^3, because Avogadro’s law states that one mole of any gas will occupy the same volume under a particular temperature and pressure
What equation allows you to work out the amount (number of moles) of a gas, and how is this transferred at RTP (room temperature and pressure)? Amount of gas = volume of gas/gas molar volume So at RTP, amount of gas = volume of gas/24
What volume of chlorine is needed to react with 1.12kg of iron? 2Fe (s) + 3Cl2 (g) -> 2FeCl3 (s) 720 dm^3
What are fertilisers and what do they contain? Fertilisers are substances that are sprayed on crops - they contain soluble nitrogen compounds which are needed by plants to make proteins, used for growth
What are some examples of natural and man-made fertilisers? Natural fertilisers = manure, guano Artificial fertilisers = nitrogenous fertilisers manufactured from ammonia
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using nitrogenous fertilisers? Advantage of artificial fertilisers: more crops are grown so more people are fed Disadvantage of artificial fertilisers: eutrophication - rain, lakes, algal blooms, lack of sunlight, dead plants, fungi and bacteria, lack of oxygen, dead fish
What is dynamic equilibrium? A reaction reaches dynamic equilibrium when the forwards and backwards reactions occur at the same rate, so the amount of each substance in the equilibrium is constant
What is the effect of temperature on the position of equilibrium? A higher temperature increases the yield of the product in the endothermic direction. A higher temperature increases the rate of reaction (collision theory). A higher temperature is more expensive so there are financial constraints
What is the effect of pressure on the position of equilibrium for gaseous reactions? A higher pressure increases the yield of the side with fewer gas moles. A higher pressure increases the rate of reaction (collision theory). A higher pressure is more expensive and is difficult to produce and maintain
What is the effect of concentration on the position of equilibrium for solutions? A higher concentration of reactants increases the yield of the product, and will increase the rate of reaction (collision theory)
What is the effect of adding a catalyst on the position of equilibrium? Catalysts do not change the yield. Catalysts increase the rate of reaction equally in both directions, allowing a reaction to be run at lower temperatures
What is the Haber process (include word equation)? The Haber process is an industrial process in which ammonia is produced in a reversible reaction from hydrogen and nitrogen. Nitrogen + hydrogen ⇌ ammonia
Where are the elements required for the Haber process obtained from? Nitrogen is extracted from the air and hydrogen is produced from methane, the main gas in natural gas
Which reaction (forward or backward) is exothermic / endothermic? The forward reaction is exothermic (releases heat) but the backward reaction is endothermic (takes in heat)
What are the desirable conditions for the Haber process? * High temperature (450ºC)- decreases the yeild of ammonia but increases rate of reaction (e->right) * High pressure (200 x atmospheric pressure) - increases the yield of ammonia & increases the rate of reaction * iron catalyst
Why does the Haber process have to take place in giant vessel reactors? There has to be strong walls that can withstand the high pressure
Created by: 11043



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