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Science P3 Topic 5

GCSE edexcel further additional physics: kinetic theory and gases

QuestionAnswer
What is the kinetic theory? The kinetic theory explains the different states of matter in terms of the movement of particles
How does the kinetic theory model explain the properties of solids? In solids, particles are held together closely by strong bonds, so can vibrate but not move around freely
How does the kinetic theory model explain the properties of liquids? In liquids, particles are held together by slightly weaker bonds, so the particles can move past each other, but liquids are incompressible as the particles are still very close together
How does the kinetic theory model explain the properties of gases? In gases, particles are spaced out and move around quickly, and so gases are compressible and expand to fill a container
What is the temperature of a gas in terms of motion of particles? The temperature of a gas is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the gas
What happens to the speed of the particles if the temperature of a gas is lowered? The particles move slower
What is the pressure of a gas in terms of motion of particles? The pressure of a gas is caused by the forces exerted as the moving particles hit the walls of a container
What happens to the pressure of a gas if the speed of the particles is increased? the faster the speed, the higher the pressure (more force is exerted when particles hit the walls)
What is pressure measured in? Pressure is measured in pascals (Pa), where 1Pa = 1N/m^2
What is absolute zero? Absolute zero is -273ºC and is the temperature at which the pressure of a gas would be zero and the particles wouldn’t be moving
What is the Kelvin temperature scale? The Kelvin temperature scale measures temperatures relative to absolute zero; -273ºC is 0 kelvin in this scale
What is the Celsius temperature scale? Measures temperatures relative to the boiling and freezing points of water
How do you convert between Celsius and Kelvin? •To convert from Kelvin to Celsius, subtract 273º •To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, add 273º
What is the average kinetic energy of the particles in a gas directly proportional to? The Kelvin temperature of the gas
Why + when is bottled gas used in medicine? Bottled gas is given to patients who have difficulties with breathing or need pain relief. Gases take up large volumes at atmospheric pressure so need to be compressed and stored at higher temperatures
What do V1 and V2 stand for? Volumes in m^3
What do P1 and P2 stand for? Pressure in pascals
What do T1 and T2 stand for? Temperatures in kelvin
What equation do you use to calculate the volume or pressure of a gas of fixed mass at a constant temperature? V1P1 = V2P2
What happens to the pressure when the volume of a gas increases? The pressure decreases
What equation do you use to calculate the volume of a gas of a fixed mass at a constant pressure? V1 = V2 x T1 / T2
If the temperature of a gas increases, what happens to the volume? It increases
What equation links pressure, temperature and volume together? P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Created by: 11043
 

 



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