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# P &F

QuestionAnswer
The force exerted by atoms and molecules is defines as _________? Pressure
How is Pressure generated? Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is produced by the atoms and molecules in_______? motion
What is the equation for pressure Force/Area
The English unit of pressure is the ________, a unit of _________ not mass. Pound (lb); Force
The SI (System International) unit of pressure? Newton/meter squared or Pascal (pa)
What are 2 ways the English unit of pressure is measured? lbs/ft. squared or lb/sq. inch (most commonly)
When molecules of gaes collide _______ is exerted Pressure
1 atm is equal to ___________ kPa or __________ lb/sq inch 101.3 kPa; 14.69 lb/sq inch
Define Cylinder pressure The sum of molecular forces of compressed gas in a closed container
How are compressed gasses measured? PSIG or pounds per square inch gauge
What two values are equal when a gas cylinder is empty? Cylinder and atmospheric pressures
A full tank of oxygen measures__________ PSIG 2000-2200
A full tank of Nitrous oxide? 745 PSIG
A bourdon gauge measures? pipeline and cylinder pressure ( Compressed gas)
The bourdon gauge is based on what type of measurement? and what does it mean? Aneroid (operating without fluid)
Who regulates standards for the bourdon gauge? ASTM
How is non compressed gas measured? mmHg (or Torr) or cmH2O
The tourniquet used during knee surgery is not a compressed gas and therefore is measured in _________ mmHg or torr
High pressure and continuing pressure on the anesthesia machine is measured in _____________. cm of water (cmH20)
Why do anesthesia machines have a pressue relief valve near the common gas outlet? ( 2 reasons) 1. Prevent high pressure from being transmitted into the machine 2. Protect the patient from high pressures from the machine
If a preset pressure is exceded the pressure releif valve opens to the ________ and releases fresh gas Atmosphere
Pressure relief valves limit what type of ventilation? adequate Jet Ventilation
Inspiratory and expiratory valves are multidirectional/unidirectional valves. Unidirectional
Unidirectional valves ensure that the gases flow ________ the patient in one breathing tube and ___________ in the other. Toward; away
Where does surface tension occur? At the air/liquid interface
The attractive forces that occur between molecules at the surface of a liquid is ________ Surface tension
how is surface tension measured? dynes/cm (@ 20 degrees C)
A dyne is a unit of (Mass/Force) Force
What safety feature on the anesthesia machine may limit the ability to provide adequate jet ventilation? Pressure relief valve
How is incompetence of unidirectional valves prevented? Opening, cleaning and replacing disks if necessary
Patients undergoing TURP are at risk of developing Dilutional Hyponatremia
Why are TURP pts at risk of developing dilutional hyponatremia? High-hanging bags of irrigation lead to absorption of irrigating solution by open venous channels
what are the 3 physics principles that apply to pressure in a liquid source ? 1)pressure in a liquid at a certain level is proportional to the height of the liquid 2)pressure in a liquid increases with the depth below the surface 3)pressure in a liquid is the same in all directions at the same depth
What is the function of the pressure regulator (pressure reducing valve)? Reduce pressure and control gas supply from cylinders and pipeline
what lines the walls of the alveoli in the lungs? A think film of liquid
How does the surface tension of fluid in the lungs affect the alveoli? The surface tension of the liquid tends to want to collapse the alveoli
where gas exchange occurs in the lungs gas exchange occurs in Alveoli
What prevents the alveoli from collapsing Surfactant
Lung surfactant is secreted by __________ Type II alveolar epithelial cells
lung surfactant ( increases/ decreases) surface tension decreases
Name the 3 physiological benefits of surfactant 1)increases lung compliance 2)reduces the tendency of small alveoli to empty into larger ones (collapse) 3)reduce fluid leak from pulmonary capillaries into alveoli (prevent pulm edema)
Created by: mgalla15

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