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Chapter 6; grade 6

Abeka-Matter and Chemistry-Malia Nelson-Test 6

Chemistry The study of what substances are made of and how one substance can be changed into another.
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass and weight.
Weight A measure of the pull of gravity on an object.
Mass The amount of matter that makes up an object.
Gram A metric unit used to measure an object's mass.
Density The amount of matter (mass) in one unit of volume (space.)
If two objects have the same volume but different densities, which object will weigh more? The object with the most density.
Volume Space.
Atom A tiny particle form which all substances are composed; the smallest particle of an element.
Electron cloud The cloud-like shield around an atom's nucleus formed by the atom's fast moving electron; prevents other atoms from moving into the same space.
Neutrons A particle that helps make up the nucleus of an atom.
Proton A positively charged particle that helps make up the nucleus of an atom.
Like charges(like two positive charges)attract, true or false? False.
What do you call something that lacks an electrical charge? Neutral.
Hydrogen atom The simplest kind of atom having a single electron whirling about a single proton.
Helium atom Contains two of each kind of particle.
Carbon atom Six electrons move about a nucleus of six protons and six neutrons.(This atom has two shells.)
Shell A group of electrons in an atom that orbit at roughly the same distance from the nucleus.
Oxygen atom Has eight protons, and eight neutrons, and eight electrons.
Sodium Has three electron shells.
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom.
Every element has its own _______ __________. Atomic number
Element A substance that is composed of only one type of atom.
Compounds A substance that is composed of more than one type of atom bonded together.
Each element is composed of a ________ ______ ___ _______. Unique type of atom
Plutonium the most abundant of the transuranium elements.
Osmium A metal that is the densest elements.
Periodic table of elements A chart constructed by Dmitri Mendeleev to arrange the element in such a way as to group similar elements together.
The blocks of color in the periodic table indicate the ______ _______ ______ ___ ______. Three main groups of elements
In the periodic table, elements colored in blue are what? Metals.
In the periodic table, elements colored in yellow are what? Nonmetals.
In the periodic table, elements colored in pink are what? Semimetals.
Name 5 important metals. Gold,Platinum,silver,copper,iron,or aluminium.
Name three metal's uses. Nickel-used to make nickel coins Lead-used to make car weights Zinc-used to make flashlight batteries
Metals A large group of elements that are typically shiny, with a silvery color, and are good conductors of electricity.
Nonmetals The element in the periodic table that are not classified as metals or semimetals.
Name 3 important nonmetals. Sulfur,Carbon,Oxygen
Name three nonmetal's uses. Oxygen-makes up the air Sulfur-important in body chemistry Carbon-makes up diamonds
Hydrogen The very first element in the periodic table; a colorless and odorless gas at room temperature.
About ____% of the atmosphere is nitrogen, and about ____% is oxygen. 78,21
Oxygen A colorless and odorless gas that animals and people require in order to live.
Nitrogen A colorless, odorless gas that is much less prone than oxygen to react with other elements; nitrogen compounds are used in fertilizers, rocket fuel, and explosives.
Protein A complex molecules found in living things that are necessary for life.
Carbon A nonmetal that is a basic building block of all living organisms.
Sulfur A nonmetal element that is an odorless, yellow solid at room temperature; called brimstone in the Bible.
Sulfuric acid A highly corrosive chemical used in car batteries and chemical manufacturing.
Phosphorus A nonmetal element that is a wax-like soled with two forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus; compounds of phosphorus and oxygen oxygen known as phosphates are used as fertilizers and food preservatives.
Silicon A gray semimetal that in pure form is used to make computer chips and is an ingredient in common sand, the mineral quartz,and glass.
Alkali Metals The metals in the first (far left) column of the periodic table, such as sodium and potassium.
Sodium and potassium Common in the rocks, soils, and oceans of the earth, although neither occur naturally in pure form.
Sodium hydroxide An important compound of sodium also known as lye or caustic soda; formula is NaOH.
Alkaline earth metals The metals in the second column of the periodic table, such as calcium and magnesium.
Calcium A silver-gray element that is the most common alkaline earth metal; and ingredient in limestone, cement, teeth and bones.
Calcium carbonate A calcium compound that is the chief ingredient in seashells, limestone, and concrete.
Magnesium An alkaline earth metal that is strong but lightweight and is used for airplanes and some cars.
Halogens Elements in the seventh column of the periodic table such as fluorine and chlorine, that show a special tendency to form compounds with alkali and alkaline earth metals.
Sodium chloride A chemical name for ordinary table salt; formula is NaCI.
Flurine A gaseous nonmetal and halogen with many important uses.
Chlorine A gaseous nonmetal that is the most widely used halogen.
Bromine A brown halogen that is liquid at ordinary room temperatures an pressures; used as an ingredient in photographic film.
Iodine A nonmetal and halogen that is a purple solid at room temperature.
What does iodine do when heated? It sublimes. that is, instead of melting, the crystals turn directly into gas.
Neon An element and noble gas that is commonly used in "neon signs."
Noble gasses The elements in the last column of the periodic table, such as helium and argon; they do not combine with anything else except under unusual circumstances.
Helium A noble gas that replaced hydrogen as the gas with which to fill balloons because it is nonreactive.
Argon The most plentiful of the noble gases; commonly used as a filler in incandescent light bulbs
Molecule A tiny group of two or more atoms that are bonded tightly together.
Mixtures Two substances mixed together, but not bonded together, like compounds are.
Crystal A geometric arrangement of atoms.
Molecular compounds A compound composed of individual molecules.
Ionic compound A compound composed of charged atoms or groups of atoms.
Diamond The hardest of all known substances.
In order to separate a mixture, you must find a method that affects the substances in the mixture ____________. Differently
Chemical reaction A process in which atoms of elements or compounds are rearranged to form new substances.
Combustion Combustion occurs whenever a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen.
Robert Boyle A pioneer of modern chemistry responsible for discovering Boyle's law. (This law explains what happens to the volume of gas when its pressure changes.)
Formulas Describes the composition of a molecule.
Created by: nelsonclan