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Crude oil


What is crude oil? A thick sticky black substance found under the ground or sea in certain parts of the world.
Crude oil has to be refined before it is useful. How? By fractional distillation - it is split into different fractions.
Where does it take place? In a fractionating column.
Temperatures? The column is hot at the bottom and gradually becomes cooler near the top.
Process. Firstly... The crude oil is heated until it vapourises. The vapour is then fed into the bottom of the column.
Then, what happens to the hydrocarbons with very high boiling points? They immediately turn into liquids and are tapped off at the bottom of the column.
However, what happens to the hydrocarbons with boiling points lower than 400 degrees? They remain as gases and rise up the column. As they rise, they cool down.
The temperature at the bottom of the column is: 400 degrees celcius.
The temperature at the top of the column is: 40 degrees celcius.
What's different about the different fractions? They condense at different heights according to their different boiling points.
What happens to a fraction when it is condensed? It is tapped off as a liquid.
Which fraction has the lowest boiling point and what happens to it? Refinery gases and it remains as a gas and comes out of the top of the column.
Which fraction has the highest boiling point? Bitumen.
From the hottest to the nottest: Beware, freddy ditched katie glass recently.
Properties. Carbon atoms? Fractions with higher boiling points have a higher number of carbon atoms in each molecule. (they are longer chain hydrocarbons, shorter chain hydrocarbons have lower boiling points).
Properties. Viscosity? Fractions with higher boiling points are more viscous.
What does viscous mean? Thick, sticky.
Refinery gases are used for: bottled gas for camping.
Gasoline: Petrol.
Kerosene: Fuel for aeroplanes, oil for central heating boilers & parrafin for small lamps.
Bitumen: Road surfaces & covering flat roofs/buildings.
Which fractions are more in demand? Shorter chain hydrocarbons.
To produce more shorter chain hydrocarbons, we use a process called... CRACKING.
Created by: eloiseis