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What ion is involved with acids and bases? Hydrogen Ion
What could alter the chemical make up of an acid or base? Placing them in water.
When acids are place in water... Dissolves and splits into 2 ions. (Hydrogen Ions)
When bases are placed in water... Dissolves and splits into 2 ions.
What is different about a base being added to water? The hydrogen ion binds to oxygen and forms a (OH-) Hydroxide Ion.
What is the term used to describe the splitting of acid and base ions? Dissociation
So when an acid and base undergo dissociation, what are the doing? Neutralizing
What makes an acid more acidic? More dissociation and release of hydrogen ions.
What makes a base more basic? More dissociation of hydrogen ions and more binding to release OH-.
How are acids and bases measured? pH scale
What does pH equal? pH= -log(H+)
What are the ranges of the pH scale? 0-14
Which side of the scale is acid and which side of the scale is basic? 0 = most acidic 14 = most basic
What does 7 on the pH scale represent? Example Neutral, Water
What are buffers? Compounds that maintain neutrality of pH by combing with H+ or OH- ions.
What is important to know about buffers? They maintain homeostatic pH in organisms to prevent them from becoming too acidic or basic.
What is the pH of blood? 7.35-7.45
What are the buffers that maintain physiologic pH? Carbonate / Phosphate / Proteins
What is the protein called in our body? Albumin
How does our renal system relate to buffers? It releases Ammonia as a buffer in the renal tubules.
What is the term used to describe the concept of acid and base? Bronsted-Lowry Definition
What is a Bronsted Acid? A molecule that donates a proton (H+)
What is a Bronsted Base? A molecule that accepts a proton (H+)
When an acid donates a proton, what remains? Conjugate Base
When a base accepts a proton, what remains? Conjugate Acid
Describe Strong acids? This molecule completely dissociates in water to yield a high H+ ion concentration.
Describe Weak acids? This molecule does not completely dissociate in water yielding a low H+ ion concentration.
Describe Strong bases? This molecule completely ionizes in a solution.
Describe Weak bases? This molecule does not completely ionizes in a solution.
What is a common chemical we use in Anesthesia? What type of chemical is it? Where is it found? Barium Hydroxide / Strong Base / CO2 Absorbent
What is another example of a strong base? What is the pKa of this example? Propofol pKa 11
What is clinically significant about strong bases? They burn during injection.
What do acids and bases contribute to? Water solubility, ability of a drug to dissolve and enter the system circulation.
What is also influenced by acids and bases? Molecular binding to a receptor.
Acid examples HCL acid, Lactic acid, Carbonic acid, Ketoacids, Pyruvic acids, Uric acids proteins
Base examples Bicarbonate, Phosphates, Proteins, Ammonia
Created by: gmg005