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The Haber process


The Haber process is the manufacture of what? Ammonia
what two elements are needed to create ammonia? nitrogen and hydrogen
How can nitrogen be obtained? from the air.
how can hydrogen be obtained? from natural gas or the cracking of hydrocarbons
Is the reaction reversible or irreversible? reversible
the equilibirum position can be shifted to the right hand side to produce a: a high yield of ammonia
what conditions must be used in order to obtain a HIGH yield of ammonia? low temperatures but high pressures
However, what's wrong with using low temperatures? the reaction is very slow
so, what's the compromise to produce a high yield? 450 degrees celcius
Also, what's wrong with using high pressures (and why)? Very expensive as lots of energy would be required to compress the gases.
so, what's the compromise? pressure of 200atms is used.
at 450 degrees, the reaction is still: quite slow
UNLESS, a catalyst is used
The most economical catalyst to use for this is what? Iron
Under these conditions, what percentage of ammonia is obtained? 15%
What happens to the remaining nitrogen and hydrogen? it is reused in the reaction
what happens to the ammonia at the end of the reaction? it leaves the reaction vessel, is cooled down, liquefied and is then tapped off.
3 uses of ammonia? the manufacture of fertilizers, nitric acid and nylon
Created by: eloiseis