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Physics Q1 Review

Review of key terms and equations learned in quarter 1 of Physics.

TermDefinition
physics the study of the physical world
branches of physics mechanics, thermodynamics, vibration and waves, optics, electricity and magnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics
scientific method of problem solving state the problem gather information form hypothesis test hypothesis analyze data draw a conclusion
experiment procedure for testing hypothesis
variable quantity that can change
independent vs. dependent variable independent variable is the variable that you change and the dependent variable is the one you measure
control variable standard by which results are compared
model idea, system, or structure that represents reality
standard quantity people agree on to use for comparison
measurement systems English system (ft., cup, gallon, etc.) Metric system ( m., g., Celcius, etc.) SI system (m., Kg., K, etc.)
volume space occupied by an object
length distance between two points
mass amount of matter in an object measured in g, Kg, cg, mg, etc. (SI unit=Kg)
density mass per unit volume measured in g/cm^3, g/mL, kg/m^3, ect
temperature SI unit=K 0 K=-273°C=-460°F 100°C=212°F=373 K
SI prefixes and conversions G--M--KHD(b)dcm--μ--n
scientific notation 1=1x10^0 10=1x10^1 100=1x10^2 .1=1x10^-1 .01=1x10^-2
accurate how right or wrong you are
precision refinement of a measurement
significant figures -all non-zero digits -not leading zeros -yes captive zeros -trailing sometimes 5.200 - yes 5200 - no
derived units combination of units
mechanics physics of motion and forces
kinematics mechanics describing motion with no regard to causes
frame of reference structure used in an experiment to show relationship between objects
scalar has a magnitude but no direction
vector has both a magnitude and direction
resultant vector representing sum of two or more vectors
trajectory parabolic path
projectile object projected into space by the exertion of a force
angle at which projectiles are launched the farthest 45°
force push or pull SI unit=N
contact forces forces between objects that are touching
field forces forces acting over a distance
fundamental forces - electromagnetic force - gravity - strong nuclear force - weak nuclear force
equilibrium when the sum of all forces acting on an object is 0
inertia tendency of an object to resist change in motion
Newton's first law of motion motion will not change without external forces acting on it
Newton's second law of motion sum of all forces= mass x acceleration
Newton's third law of motion everything has an equal and opposite reaction
energy ability to cause change
potential energy stored energy
acceleration of gravity 9.81 m/s^2
free fall motion under the influence of gravity only
elastic potential energy vs. gravitational potential energy elastic potential energy measures stored energy in a spring and gravitational potential energy has to do with how high above ground you are
mechanical energy sum of kinetic energy, elastic potential energy and gravitational potential energy (ME is conserved in the absence of friction)
power rate at which work is done SI unit=watts English unit=horsepower (hp)
law of conservation of momentum initial momentum=final momentum
Created by: fiona82