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Chemistry Review

matter anything that has volume and mass
atom the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
nucleus the positively charged dense center of an atom; contains protons and neutrons
electron cloud a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found, negatively changed
electrical charge a property of matter that tells whether something has a positive or negative charge
proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is located in the electron cloud
subatomic particles particles inside an atom (protons, neutrons, electrons)
chemical formula a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
balanced equation chemical equation with the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation
atomic mass Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
valence electrons electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
energy level the different areas for an electron in an atom
net charge sum of the positive and negative charges
property a characteristic used to describe matter
reactivity the property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances
periodic table of elements a table with elements organized in order of increasing atomic number, and grouped such that elements with similar properties are in vertical columns.
groups vertical columns or families of elements on the periodic table; the elements in these have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons
periods the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table; the elements in these have the same number of energy levels
metalloids elements that have characteristics of metals and nonmetals
metals elements that are malleable, have a shiny or metallic luster, are good conductors of heat and electricity and have a high melting point
nonmetals an element that is brittle, dull, tends to be a poor conductor of heat and electrictricity and a low melting point
noble gases the elements of group 18 of the periodic table; the least reactive group
electron shell the arrangement of electrons around an atom's nucleus according to the energy they contain; electrons with the least energy are in the shell closest to the nucleus, and those with more are in shells farther from the nucleus
element a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
atomic symbol one or two letters that represent the name of an element; the first letter is always capitalized and other letters are always lowercase
alkaline earth metals Any metal in group 2A of the periodic table
alkali metals the elements located in group 1 of the periodic table; most reactive group on the periodic table
halogens The elements of Group 17, most reactive group of nonmetals on the periodic table
subscript number placed to the lower right of a chemical symbol to indicate the number of atoms of the element in the compound
chemical formula a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
chemical reaction A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
chemical equation a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
coefficient A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.
reactants the starting materials in a chemical reaction; located to the left of the arrow (what you start out with)
products the substances that are formed by the chemical reaction; located to the right of the arrow (what you end up with)
law of conservation of mass the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed
mass the amount of matter in an object
Created by: jistre