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Unit 1

AQA unit 1 chemistry, gcse revision

how is cement made? powdered limestone is heated in a kiln with powdered clay
what is limewater used for? as a test for carbon dioxide and it turns limewater cloudy as a result
element a substance only contains one type of atom
law of conservation no atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactions.
how is mortar made? cement + sand + water
how is concrete made? cement+ sand + aggregate
benefits of quarrying limestone jobs for locals useful material cheap material
drawbacks of quarrying limestone destoys habitat visual pollution creates noise heavy traffic
sulfur dioxide causes acid rain. mixes with clouds. forms dilute sulfuric acid. falls as acid rain-> causes lakes to become acidic= plants die, damages limestone buildings and statues.
properties of titanium low density metal. very strong. corrosion resistant
limestone cycle- eqations CaCO3->CaO+CO2->Ca(OH)2
limestone cycle- word equations calcium carbonate-> Carbon oxide-> solid calcium hydroxide -> calcium hydroxide solution
more volatile? turn into a gas at a lower temperature
Biodiesel: Pros Carbon neutral. engines arent converted. produces less sulfur dioxide than ordinary diesel/petrol
Biodiesel: Con can't make enough to completely replace petrol. expensive.
alernative fuels ethanol. biodiesel hydrogen gas
first four alkAnes methane CH4 Ethane C2H6 propane C3H8 Butane C4H10
Ethanol? Produced from plant material=biofuel. Made by fermentation of plants- carsoften mixed w/petrol=better fuel.
Alkanes are hydrocarbons that are saturated
ore? metal that contains metal worth extracting
bioleaching use of bacteria to extract metals from the ground
ductile? able to be drawn into thin wires
delocalised where electrons are free to move within structure, allows a charge to be carried
insoluble will not dissolve in water
soluble substance being dissolved
decompose break down into simpler compounds or elements
Cracking? Making a large hydrocarbon smaller (using heat and a catalyst.
CATALYST speeds up reaction, lowers activation energy, usually a transition metal
Created by: CBA