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Chapter 11

Liquids, Solids, and intermolecular forces

Identify the characteristics of a liquid Indefinite shape, but definite volume
Identify the characteristics of a gas Indefinite shape and volume
Has low density Gas
Identify the characteristics of a solid Definite shape and volume
Give the change in condition to go from a liquid to a gas Increase heat or reduce pressure
The force between polar molecules is known as dipole-dipole forces
The potential energy of molecules decrease as they get closer to one aonther
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force present in NH2CH3? The two strands in DNA are held together by _______. hydrogen bonding
Order of INCREASING strength of intermolecular forces CH4<CH3CH3<CH3CH2CH3
Order of DECREASING strength of intermolecular forces CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3>(CH3)3CCH2CH3>(CH3)3CCH3
A compound w/o hydrogen bonding (CH3)3N
In a liquid, the energy required to increase the surface of the area by a unit amount is called surface tension
Choose the substance with the lowest viscosity ClCH2CH2Cl
Choose the substance with the highest viscosity BeCl2 HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH Maple Syrup
Identify the term used to describe the ability of a liquid to flow against gravity up a narrow tube capillary action
Describe sweating in humans It is an endothermic reaction The sweat evaporates absorbing heat from the body The skin is cooled
Vapor pressure increase with temp
Identify the place that has the lowest boiling point of water Mt Everest, 29,035 feet
Identify the place that has the highest boiling point of water Death Valley, 282 feet below sea level
Molecules with hydrogen bonding are more volatile than compounds with dipole-dipole forces
Which substance has the strongest intermolecular force? A2X, DeltaHvap=29.6 kJ/mol
Define boiling. A liquid becomes a gas
Define deposition. A gas becomes a liquid
Define sublimation The phase transition from solid to gas
Define freezing. The phase transition from liquid to solid
Define fusion The phase transition from solid to liquid
At atmospheric pressure, dry ice sublimes
At atmospheric pressure, ice melts
Define triple point The temp and pressure where liquid, solid, and gas are equally stable and are in eqilibrium
Why is water an extraordinary substance? Haw low molar mass, yet is liquid at room temp Main solvent within living organisms An exceptionally high specific heat capacity Strong hydrogen bonds
Identify the compound with the highest boiling point. H2O KI
Identify the type of solid for AgCL ionic solid
Identify the type of solid for ice. molecular soild
Identify the type of solid for gold metallic atomic solid
Identify the type of solid for diamonds networking atomic solid
Identify the type of solid for argon nonbonding atomic solid
Which has the smallest dipole-dipole forces? Molecule/compound that exhibits dispersion force as its strongest intermolecular force. The substance with the lowest boiling point O2
Which is expected to have the largest dispersion forces? C12H26
Compound that exhibits hydrogen bonding CH3NH2
In liquid propanol, CH3CH2CH2OH which intermolecular forces are present? Dispersion, hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole forces present
Compounds that exhibits only dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions CH3Br
The normal boiling point for H2Se is higher than the normal boiling point for H2S. This can be explained by larger dispersion forces for H2Se
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force present in Cl2? Dispersion
What is the strongest intermolecular force present in CHBr3? dipole-dipole
What type of intermolecular force causes the dissolution of KF in water? ion-dipole force
Identify the compound that has hydrogen bonding H2O
Pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogenous solution NH3+CH3OH C6H14+C10H20 NF3+SO2
The substance with the highest surface tension HOCH2CH2OH
The substance with the lowest surface tension CH3CH2CH2CH3
Substance with the lowest vapor pressure at a given temperature CaI2
Substance that would have the highest DeltaHvap C6H6
Give the coordination number for a body-centered cubic cell 8
How many H- ion are around each Na+ ion in NaH, which has a cubic unit cell with H- ions on each corner and each face? 6
Forms a molecular solid C10H22
Forms an ionic solid RbI
What type of bonding does Sr form an ionic solid? metallic
What is considered a molecular solid? I2
What is considered an ionic solid? (NH4)2CO3
what is considered an atomic solid? Nb
What is considered a nonbonding atomic solid? Ne
What has the highest melting point? MgO Fe
Ionic bond LiI
Hydrogen Bonding CH3OH
Dispersion Forces CH3CH3
Dipole-dipole forces CH2F2
Ion-dipole forces LiI+H2O
Define viscosity The resistance of a liquid to flow
Define boiling point of a liquid The temp at which the vapor pressure equals the external pressure
Define dynamic equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium is when the rate of condensation equals the rate of vaporization
Created by: karmabites