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Chemistry 161

Chapter 6

Octet Rule Atoms will gain, lose or share electrons in order to achieve a noble gas electron configuration
Lone pair Pair of valence electrons that are not involved in covalent bond formation
Single Bond A par of electrons shared by two atoms
Multiple bond A chemical bond in which two atoms share two or more pair of electrons
Double bond A multiple bond in which the atoms share two pair of electrons
Triple bond A multiple bond in which the atoms share three pairs of electrons
Enthalpy A thermodynamic quantity closely related to energy
Central atom An atom that is bonded to more than one atom
Polar Electrons are shared but not shared equally
Polar covalent bonds Bonds in which electrons are unequally shared
Electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract an electron pair in a covalent bond to itself (increases across a period, decreases down a group)*similar to atomic radius trend
Low electronegativity Formation of cations
High electronegativity Formation of anions
Nonpolar Having a uniform distribution of electron density. Bonds between atoms whose electronegativities differ by less than 0.5 =purely covalent/nonpolar
Polar covalent Bonds between atoms whose electronegativities range of 0.5-2.0
Ionic bonds Bonds between atoms whose electronegativity differ by 2.0 or more
Dipole moment (μ) Quantitative measurement of the polarity of a bond. μ= charge (Q) x distance (r) between charges
Formal charge Method of electron "bookkeeping" in which shared electrons are divided equally between that atoms that share them
Resonance structure Two or more equally valid Lewis structures for a single molecule that differ only in electron positions
Incomplete octet Atoms with less than 4 valence electrons
Octet expansion When more than eight electrons can be accommodated around the central atom. For 3rd period elements and above. (D orbitals)
Coordinate covalent bond/Dative bond Bond in which one of the atoms donates both electrons
Molecules with ODD number of electrons When total number of electrons is odd, not all the atoms will have complete octets, and there must be an UNPAIRED electron in the molecule
Free radicals Molecules (species) with an odd number of electrons. Very reactive
Bond length Distance between the nuclei of two atoms joined by a covalent bond
Atomic size As atomic size increases bond length increases
Bond strength The shorter the bond length the the stronger the bond strength
Created by: cynthiaf1021