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Chemistry 161

Chapter 5

TermDefinition
Compound A substance composed of two or more elements held together by a chemical bond. (cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical processes)
Lewis Dot Symbol Consists of an element's symbols surrounded by dots representing a valence electron
Ionic Compound A compound that consists of cations and anions
Ionic Boding Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles
Lattice A 3-Dimensional array of cations and anions
Lattice Energy Amount of energy required to convert a mole of ionic solid to its constituent ions in the gas phase
Metallic Bond The valence electrons from a band of electronic cloud surrounding the nucleus
Covalent Bond Results from sharing an electron pair between two atoms
Gaining, losing or sharing electrons Atoms acquire noble gas configuration
Molecule A neutral combination of at lest two atoms in a specific arrangement held together by chemical bonds
Law of Definite Proportions Different samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio (Proust)
Law of Multiple Proportions Different compounds made of the same element differ in the number of atoms of each kind that combineA
Diatomic molecule A molecule that contains two atoms (Hydrogen molecule H2)
Homonuclear Containing atoms of the same element
Heteronuclear Containing two or more different elements
Polyatomic Molecules Molecules containing more than two atoms
Molecular Formula Chemical formula that give the number of atoms of each element in a molecule (multiple of empirical formula)
Allotrope One or more distinct forms of an element
Empirical Formula The chemical formula that conveys with the smallest possible whole number ratio of combination of elements in a compound
Alkali Metals Group I elements (form +1 cations)
Alkali earth metals Group II elements (form +2 cations)
Group V (non metals) form -3 anions
Group VI form -2 anions
Group VII form -1 anions
Naming of Ions Anions- if derived from single atoms add "ide" (O2- *Oxide)
Oxaoanions Anions containing oxygen
Law of Conservation of Mass For an ordinary chemical reaction, the total mass (reactants plus products) remains constant (Lavoisier)
Inorganic Compounds Compounds that do not contain Carbon or that derived from nonliving sources
Organic Compunds Contain Hydrogen and Carbon
Functional Group A part of a molecule characterized by a special arrangement of atoms that is largely responsible of the chemical behavior of the parent molecule
Molecular Mass The sum of the atomic masses in amu of the atoms that make up a molecule
Created by: cynthiaf1021