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Information System Environment

Characteristics of a database 1.Data sharing(Data in a database is organised and stored in a manner which enables use by diff users in diff app prog .
Characteristics of a database 2.Data independence from the application programs(Data and databases are independent of any specific app prog. A single data file exists and data is read by diff app programs
Data administrator responsibilities 1.Involves the control of data 2.Development & maintenance of a strategic plan & the policies in respect of data resource management 3.Implementation of models iro data\data architecture 4.Coordination & integration of data usage
Data administrator responsibilities 6.Involves control of the day to day operations of the database system 7.Design of the database in respect of structure, storage, access control etc 8.Maintenance of data integrity, security, completeness and access control
Data administrator responsibilities Monitoring operations of the database
Data administrator responsibilities Managing links between different databases
Data administrator responsibilities Administration, coordination support with suppliers & the DBMS
Distributed processing - networks LAN Data communication system linking multiple independent computers in a limited area. Computers connected with cables or wireless. (Campus intra net) WAN
Distributed processing - networks WAN Data communication system linking multiple independent computers over a wide geographical area. Connection take place trough the internet. (BBM, Google talk)
Access Uncontrolled access leading to: (1)Duplication, (2)Corruption, (3)Manipulation ,(4)Sabotage, (5)Unauthorised processing of data
Input Absence of input documentation Lack of visible audit trails providing evidence of authorisation
Transfer of Data Unauthorised access through connections. Could lead to duplication, corruption or manipulation of data from service providers or 3rd parties Data could be lost\corrupted in transmission
Staff issues 1.Loss of supervision in a decentralised processing environment 2.Limited experience / Lack training on computers 3.Segregation of duties may be weaker
Output 1.Loss of audit trail 2.Often less manual review of info
Processing 1.Multiple functions preformed by single program 2.Integrated systems – 1 error effecting different systems 3.System generated tx
Processing 4.Uniform processing reduces risk of clerical error, but may affect diff systems 5.Errors may not be noticed due to high speed of processing & volumes involved
Continuity Loss of data
Specific issues Financial loss due to EFT Failure to clear computer suspense files Abuse of credit cards
General issues 1.Types of computers used 2.Types of software. Developed or bought 3.Processing method applied and any changes thereto
General issues 4.Effectiveness of the control environment and management's attitude towards computer controls 5.Effectiveness of computerised controls and potential weakness in general
General issues 7.Nature of business/tx 8.Size of entity & volume of tx 9.Materiality of data/tx processed 10.Importance of processing/dependency on computer processing & controls
General issues 11.New system\ changes to the system may at first not function properly 12.Complexity 13.More sophisticated sytems, more likely that clients become dependent on them (Going Concern) 14.Dependence on controls exercised by 3rd party
General issues 15.Detailed knowledge of system often known to limited # of people. 16.Short-term retention of data on system 17.Inability of system to cope with large volume of tx (crash), leading to loss/corruption of data
ITE Types 1.Online computer systems 2.Batch processing systems 3.Microframes (PC systems) 4.Database system 5.Distributed processing (Networks)
What is an On-line Computer System? Computer system where data is captured via a terminal as the tx occurs & data is immediately edited, processed & written to a computer file
What is a terminal? An electronic device which allows a user to interface with a computer at a different location. (Laptop, notebooks, tablets, smartphones, etc.)
On-line Computer System-Advantages 1.Files are up to date 2.Accuracy of entry 3.Risk of non-recording of tx is small 4.Fast system
On-line Computer System-Disadvantages 1.Absence of viable entry audit trail 2.High risk of unauthorised access to system data 3.High risk of unauthorised processing on the system 4.High risk of unauthorised changes to data
Characteristics of an on-line system 1.On-line entry of data 2.Authorisation of input through validation tests 3.On-line access to the system by users 4.Absence of visible audit trails 5.Risk that programmers could gain unauthorised access
What is a Batch Processing System? 1.Computer system where source docs are collected in batches. Control totals are calc by the user. This data is captured in batches with the users control totals. 2.The computer calc its own control totals and compares it with the user's totals.
What is a Batch Processing System? 3.Balances not matching are rejected and these are printed on exception reports. 4.Senior checks the totals, corrects errors and re-submits data
Batch processing system-Advantages Visible audit trails Accuracy
Batch processing system-DisAdvantages Slow Files are not updated continuously
What is a Personal Computer? 1.Powerful computer which incorporates a processing unit, memory, screen, data storage unit, etc. Programs and data stored on removable or non-removable electronic media.
What is a Personal Computer? 2.Used to process accounting tx and generate reports necessary for FS 3.Could manage the entire accounting system or part of it
Personal computers systems.-configurations 1.Stand – alone workstation 2.Network of personal computers 3.Links to a central computer
Personal computers systems.-Description 1.Single user at a time 2.or more PC's linked by communication lines & software. 1 Server that controls the network Multiple users Have access to info, data & programs 3.PC are used as intelligent terminals
Personal computers systems.-PC Characteristics 1.Small, easy transportable 2.Relative in expenses 3.Quick to install 4.User-friendly
Personal computers systems.-PC Characteristics 5.Operating system not comprehensive and contains fewer security aspects 6.Application software is usually off-the-self packages without modification 7.Data is stored on easily removable/damageable media
Database systems 1.Collection of data used & shared by a number of different users for different purposes. Individual users are familiar with only data used by them. 2.Comprises two principal components, namely the database and the database management system (DBMS).
DBMS Program used to create and store data and to manage the database. With the operating system, the DBMS facilitates the storage of data and the relationships between data to make the data available for the use in application programs.
Created by: ModupeMakoanyane
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