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Chemistry 161

Chapter 4

Groups Columns
Periods Rows
Aufbau Principle Group number indicates number of electrons in the valence shell of that element in the main group.
Vertical Trend The greater the (n), shell number, the further away it is from the nucleus.
Horizontal Trend Across a period the size
Valence electrons Outermost electrons of an atom
Nuclear charge (Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Effective Nuclear Charge (Z eft) Actual magnitude of positive charge that is "experienced" by an electron in the atom (Zeff= Z-core electrons)
Shielding/Screening When electrons are simultaneously attracted to the nucleus ad repelled by one another
Core elctrons Electrons in the completed inner shells
Atomic radius The distance between the nucleus of an atom and its valence shell\(increases down a group while it decreases across a period)
Metallic radius Half the distance between the nuclei of two adjacent, identical metal atoms
Covalent radius Half the distance between adjacent, identical nuclei that are connected by a chemical bond
Ionization Energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase (Increases across a period while it decreases down a group)
Ion Chemical species with a net charge that results from Ionization energies
Cation Ion with a net positive charge
IE down a group Decreases, The electron is further down away from the nucleus. Therefore, it is less tightly held to the nucleus and less energy is needed to ionize.
IE across a row Increases, electron is more tightly held (more protons in the nucleus, and "n" is constant). Therefore, more energy is needed to ionize.
Electron Affinity Energy released when an atom in the gas phase accepts an electron. It can be released and absorbed
The higher the electron affinity The more energy is released
Electron Affinity down a group Decreases, less energy released
Electron Affinity across a period Increases, but increase is not smooth
Nonmetals Atoms that have larger number of electrons in their valence shell and tend to form negative ions. (Poor conductors of heat and electricity, high electron affinity)
Metalloids Have some metallic and nonmetallic properties, "borderline" elements
Nole Gases Group 8A elements. High ionization energy and rarely enter into a chemical reaction
Monatomic Ions Those consisting of a single atom that has either gained or lost one or more electrons
Isoelectronic Species with the same electron configuration
Ionic radius The radius of a cation or anion
Isoelectronic series A series of two or more species that have identical electron configuration but different nuclear charges
Created by: cynthiaf1021



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