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Human Body

skeletal system consists of bones as well as other structures that connect and protect your bones and that support other functions in the body.
function of skeletal system movement and support
function of the skeletal system produces blood
function of the skeletal system stores minerals
function of the skeletal system protects organs
major types of bone spongy, compact, periosteum, and bone marrow
joints where two bones meet. Some are movable and some are immovable.
muscular system contains muscles which are important for movement, protection, stability, and maintaining body temperature
function of the muscular system movement, protections, stability, balance
function of the muscular system makes the heart beat causing blood to flow
function of the muscular system maintains body temperature
voluntary muscles muscles that are consiously controlled
involuntary muscles muscles that cannot be consicously controlled
skin the largest organ of the human body
integumentary system the external coverings of the body such as: skin, hair, and nails
function of skin covers and protects bones and muscles
function of skin holds sensory receptors that detect temperature and pain
function of skin produces vitamin D when exposed to the sun
function of skin helps maintain body temperature and removes waste by sweating
digestive system responsible for processing all food that a person eats through four steps- ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.
mouth Mechanical digestion of food begins here
saliva contains an enzyme that helps break down carbohydrates
esophagus muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
stomach large, hollow organ that stores food for digestion
small intestine responsible for chemical digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and fats and moving those nutrients into the blood through small blood vessels in the villi (finger like projections in the small intestine).
large intestine water is absorbed. Materials that pass through here are the waste products of digestion.
liver, pancreas, gall bladder produce substances that enter the small intestine and help with chemical digestion
excretory system collects and eliminates wastes from the body and regulates the level of fluid in the body
function of the excretory system eliminates waste to prevent organ damage
kidney bean-shaped organ that filters wastes from the blood. They produce urine.
ureter Urine leaves each kidney and travels through this tube
bladder a muscular sac that holds urine until the urine is excreted.
urethra Urine leaves through this tube
function of the respiratory system breathing: bringing oxygen into the body for cellular respiration and removing carbon dioxide
pharynx tube like passageway at the top of the throat that receives air, food, and liquids from the mouth or nose.
epiglottis at the bottom of the pharynx keeps food and liquid out of the rest of the respiratory system.
larynx Air passes from the pharynx into this triangle-shaped area
trachea 29. From the larynx, air moves into the windpipes or _________________________, a tube that is held open by C-shaped rings of cartilage.
bronchi 30. The trachea branches into two narrower tubes called __________________________ that lead into the lungs.
lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. The contain bronchioles and alveoli.
alveoli Gas exchange occurs at the surface of the
diaphragm the principle muscle of respiration contracts and relaxes as you breathe
circulatory system carries food, water, and oxygen, and other materials through the circulatory system to the body’s cell and tissues. Blood also carries waste materials, including carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration.
heart muscle that pushes blood through the circulatory system.
right atrium Oxygen poor blood flows into the _________________________ from the body
right ventricle blood flows from the right atrium into this chamber of the heart and out into the lungs
left atrium oxygen rich blood from the lungs travels into this chamber
left ventricle pumps oxygen rich blood from the left atrium into the body
immune system has many defenses to stop pathogens (disease causing agents such as viruses and bacteria).
nonspecific defenses of the immune system 39. Skin, hair-like structures in the nose, mucus, white blood cells, stomach acid, and inflammation protect against more than one type of pathogen
antibodies attach to an antigen/pathogen making it harmless
B cells form and mature in the bone marrow. The secrete antibodies into the blood.
T cells form in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. They produce a protein antibody that becomes part of a cell membrane
allergy overly sensitive immune response to common antigens.
immunity resistance to specific pathogens
active immunity your body encounters a pathogen and produces antibodies to combat it
passive immunity the antibodies were produced in a mother and passed to a child or made somewhere outside of the organism
nervous system The part of an organism that gathers, processes and responds to information
central nervous system brain and the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system all neurons outside of the brain and spinal cord
neurons nerve cells
cerebrum part of the brain that controls memory and thought
cerebellum coordinates voluntary muscle movement and regulates balance and posture.
brain stem controls involuntary functions
spinal cord tube-like structure of neurons. It sends information back and forth between the brain and the rest of the body
reproductive system a group of tissues and organs that enables the male and female reproductive cells to join and form new offspring.
testes male reproductive organs that produce sperm the sex cells that males produce.
ovaries the organ where the female reproductive system produces eggs,which are sex cells produced by females.
human stages of development birth, childhood, adolescence, adulthood
pregnancy the period of development from fertilized egg to birth.
zygote fertilized egg
embryo 57. From the time the zygote attaches to the uterus until the end of the eight week of pregnancy
fetus Between nine weeks and birth
infancy first two years of a newborn’s life is called___________________________. During infancy, the brain continues to develop teeth form, and bones grow and get harder.
childhood period after infancy, During which time the brain continues to grow,and the child grows taller.
adolescence Males and females grow taller, and the reproductive system matures in this process
adulthood end of adolescence through old age.
Created by: LOM Life Science