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ch 21 vocab

TermDefinition
nucleon a particle found in the nucleus of an atom
radioactive possessing radioactivity, the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with accompanying emission of radiation
radionuclide a radioactive nuclide
radioisiotope an isotope that is radioactive; that is, it is undergoing nuclear changes with emission of radiation
alpha particle particles that are identical to helium-4 nuclei, consisting of two protons and two neutrons 4/2 He or 4/2 a
beta particle energetic electrons emitted broom the nucleus 0/-1e
positron a particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge 0/1e
electron capture a mode of radioactive decay in which an inner-shell orbital electron is captured by the nucleus
gamma radiation energetic electromagnetic radiation emanating from the nucleus of a radioactive atom
magic numbers numbers of protons and neutrons that result in very stable nuclei
radioactive series (nuclear disintegration series) a series of nuclear reactions that begins with an unstable nucleus and terminates with a stable one
nuclear transmutation a conversion of one kind of nucleus to another
particle accelerator a device that uses strong magnetic and electrostatic fields to accelerate charges particles
transuranium elements elements that follow uranium in the periodic table
becquerel (Bq) the SI unit of radioactivity. it corresponds to one nuclear disintegration per second
curie (Ci) a measure of radioactivity. 1 curie = 3.7 x 10^10 nuclear disintegration per second
activity the decay rate of a radioactive material, generally expressed as the number of disintegrations per unit time
half-life the time required for the concentration of a reactant substance to decrease to half its initial value, the time required for half of a sample of a particular radioisotope to decay
geiger counter a device that can detect and measure radioactivity
scintillation counter an instrument that is used to detect and measure radiation by the fluorescence it produces in a fluorescing medium
radiotracer a radioisotope that can be used to trace the path of an element in a chemical system
mass defect the difference between the mass of a nucleus and the total masses of the individual nucleons that it contains
nuclear binding energy the energy required to decompose an atomic nucleus into its component protons and neutrons
fission the splitting of a large nucleus into two smaller ones
fusion the joining of two light nuclei to form a more massive one
chain reaction a series of reaction in which one reaction initiates the next
critical mass the amount of fissionable material necessary to maintain a chain reaction
supercritical mass an amount of fissionable material larger than the critical mass
thermonuclear reaction another name for fusion reactions, reactions in which two light nuclei are joined to form a more massive one
ionizing radiation radiation that has sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule, thereby ionizing it
nonionizing radiation radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule
free radicals a substance with one or more unpaired electrons
gray (Gy) the SI unit for radiation does corresponding to the absorption of 1 J of energy per kilogram of tissue
rad a measure of the energy absorbed from a radiation by tissue or other biological material
rem a measure of the biological damage caused by radiation
Created by: agloskowski