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Ch. 2


Define the Law of Conservation of Energy Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a system
Define Matter Matter is anything that has mass and volume
Dyes and ink mixtures can be separated by what procedure? Chromatography
Definition of a calorie The amount of energy needed to raise 1g. of water 1 degree Celsius
Define Absolute Zero The point at which all molecular motion stops
Flammability corresponds to what type of property? Chemical (burning something changes identity of a substance... so it is a chemical change)
What makes elements and compounds pure? Elements and compounds have unique sets of characteristics and properties (chemical and physical)
This kind of property changes an item: Chemical
How is filtration different from distillation? Filtration: between a solid and liquid to separate, generally for a heterogenous mixturedistillation: uses boiling points between two liquids, generally to separate homogenous mixtures
What is the conversion formular to go from Kelvin to Celsius? K = C + 273(C = K - 273)... Kalvin doesn't have negative
What is the SI unit for energy? Joule
2 or more elemets of a fixed proportion are known as what? compounds
the characteristic that doesn't alter the identity of a substance is... Physical characteristic (/change)
What are the three basic forms of energy? potential, kinetic and radiant
Sea water is a mixture of what type? Homogenous
What ist eh elemenet of the symbol Es? Einsteinium
0 on the Kelvin scale is corerspondant to what degree Celsius? -273 C
What form of matter holds its shape? solid
What is a substance that can't be broken down any further? Element
One degree change in Kelvin = to what degree change in Celsius? 1 degree
Define heterogeneous mixture: Heterogeneous: mixture of two substances with visibly different parts
What is energy? The capacity to do work and produce heat
A blend of two or more pure substances is what? mixture
the SI unit for temp. is what? Kelvin
1 cal = ? Joule(s) 1 cal = 4.184 Joules
1 Cal - ? cal (s) 1 Cal = 1000 cal
Potenital Energy? stored energy
three types of potential energy? 1.) gravitational (rock on a hill)2.) electrical 3.) chemical (food, gas in a car tank)
Radiant Energy? Energy of sunlight
Kinetic Energy? Energy of motion
three ways matter and energy are related: 1.) use energy to move matter.2.) convert matter into energy (food to energy)3.) Use temp. scales to measure energy changes in matter3.) use
Energy can come in: heat, light and sound
Work Capacity to move object (versus force)
what calorie is measured on food lables? KCal of Cal (not calorie)
Temperature Kinetic energy of matter
Who invented first thermometer? Galielio
Conversion from Farenheit to Celsius C = (F-32)5/9
20 Celius = ? Farheinheit? 20 = (F-32)5/9 1.) divide by 5/9 --> 36 = F-32.2.) add 32 to both sides --> answer: 68 Farhenheit
absolute zero? point at which motion of particles ceases
absolute zero of Celius -273 C
absolute zero of Kelvins? 0 K
Absolute zero of Farheinheit? -32 F
Matter amount of material in an object
Volume amount of space object occupies
characteristics of matter solid, liquid, gas and plasma
solid holds shape and has definite volume; high density, pressure has little effect on it
liquid doesn't hold shape but definite volume; high density, pressure has little effect on it
gas no definite shape or volume; density deponds on pressure, low density
plasma high temp, atoms ionized
physical properties of matter characteristic of a substance that can be measured/observed without changing identity (tearing, ripping, boiling)
chemical properties of matter can't be observed without changing its identity (burning, rust, cooking)
elements substances that can't be separated into simpler substances by a chemical reaction
compounds two or more elements combined during a chemical reaction in a fixed proportion (e.g.: H20)
pure substances (can be elements or compounds) a substance that has a unique set of chemical and physical properties
heterogenous visibily different parts (choc. chip cookie)
how can a heterogenous mixture be separated? filtration
homogenous non-visbile different parts (air, sewater)
how can homogenous mixtures be separated? crystallization, chromatography, distillation
distillation separates liquids due to different boiling points
crystallization e.g. seawater to evaporate partially to form salt crystals, gemstones formed years ago from cooling planet
chromatography separation by allowing substances to flow along a stationary substances (e.g: ink pigments on a piece of paper separating)
changes in matter = changes in energy
______ is the capacity to do work or to produce heat energy
sunlight is an example of _______ energy radiant
the gasoline in a car is an example of __________ energy chemical potential
the SI unite of energy is the _______ joule
the three main fossil fuels that supply 90% of our energy requirements are ? coal, petroleum and natural gas
what transformation is burning gas to drive a car? chemical to thermal to mechanical
what transformation is friction? mechanical to heat
what transformation is photosynthesis? light to chemical
what transformation is an electric mixer? electrical to mechanical
what transformation is a steam turbine to make electricity? thermal to mechanical to electrical
what transformation is a flashlight? chemical to electrical to light
15 Celsius = ? Kelvin 288 Kelvin
380 Kelvin = ? Celsius 107 Celsius
Farhenheight to celsius F = 9/5Celsius + 32
20 kcal added to 100g water at 50 degrees celsius... what would be the new temp of the water? (in celsius) 20 kcal = (2000 cal/100g) = 200 cal + 50 Celsius = 250 degrees celsius
water boiling = what kind of change physical
iron rusting = what kind of change chemical
butter melting = what kind of change physical
alcohol evaporating = what kind of change physical
wood rotting = what kind of change chemical
leaves changing color = what kind of change chemical
glass breaking = what kind of change physical
mowing the lawn = what kind of change physical
magnetizing a nail = what kind of change physical
baking a cake = what kind of change chemical
_____ cannot be separated by physical or chemical means elements
elements are abbreviated with _____, which consist of one or two _______. symbols, letter
elements are organized on the _________ periodic table
carbon is an example of a carbon and ______ is an example of a compound carbon dioxide
elements and compounds are called ______ substances because they have a unique set of chemical and phsyical _________. pure, properties
carbon is a what element
water is what compound
aluminium foil is what element
plastic is what compound
tin is what element
silicone dioxide is what compound
carbon dioxide is what compound
helium is what element
arsenic is what element
sodium chloride is what compound
alphabet soup = what kind of mixture? heterogenous
salt = what kind of mixture? pure
vegetable oil = what kind of mixture? pure
air = what kind of mixture? homogenous
seawater = what kind of mixture? homogenous
granite = what kind of mixture? heterogenous
steel = what kind of mixture? homogenous
sugar = what kind of mixture? sugar
heterogenous mixtures are often separated by _____ filtration
separating sand from water can be done by ____ filtration
sugar in sugar water can be separated by ___ crystallization
the separation technique that takes advantage of different boiling points is called_________ distillation
removing chlorophyll pigment from leaves might be done by __________ chromatography
the best way to decompose water into oxygen and hydrogen is by ____________ electrolysis
crude oil is broken down by heat, vaporized and allowed to condense into various liquids such as gasolie. this process is called _____ distillation
why is every solution a micture, but not ever mixture a solution? a solition is homogenous, meaning every solution is a micture, but becasue there is also heterogenous mixtures, not all mictures are solutions
examples of mixtures that appear homogenous but actually are heterogenous salad dressing : shaken = homo, let sit = hetero
what is a centrifuge? a tool to separate mixtures using gravity
Created by: llcrys