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Management 363

QuestionAnswer
psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes and that tax or exceed a persons capacity or resources stress
demands that cause people to experience stress stressors
negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed ones capacity or resources strains
triggered when stressors are first encountered and occurs as people evaluate the significance and the meaning of the stressors they are confronting primary appraisal
job demands tat tend not to be appraised as stressful benign job demands
stressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment hindrance stressors
stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities for learning, growth, and achievement challenge stressors
conflicting expectations that other people may have on us (call center operator) role conflict
lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role, as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performance in that role (students, new employees) role ambiguity
number of demanding roles a person holds is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all of the roles efficiently role overload
relatively minor day-to-day demands that get in the way of accomplishing the things we really want to accomplish daily hassles
strong sense that the amount of time you have to do a task is just not quite enough time pressure
degree to which the requirements of the work, in terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, tax or exceed the capabilities of the person who is responsible for performing the work work complexity
nature of the obligations that a person has to others work responsibility
special form of role conflict in which the demands of the work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands in a family role (or vice-versa) work-family conflict
hinder the ability to achieve life goals and are associated with negative emotions negative life events
conditions that create uncertainties with regard to the loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay expenses financial uncertainty
reflect the time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and reponsibilities family time demands
participate in formal education programs personal development
marriage, pregnancy positive life events
refers to the behaviors and thoughts that people use to manage both the stressful demands that they face and the emotions associated with those stressful demands coping
involves the set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation behavioral coping
thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with stressful situations cognitive coping
refers to the behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itself problem-focused coping
refers to the various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands emotion-focused coping
resistance to the stressor is temporarily lowered and the body activates several defense mechanisms to resist and counteract the stressor stage 1:alarm reaction
increase arousal of the mind and body helps the person respond and adapt to the demand stage 2:resistance
prolonged or repeated exposure to the stressor could cause body to break down and exhaustion and even death may occur stage 3:exhaustion
illness, high blood pressure, back pain, stomach aches physiological strains
emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion that results from having to cope with stressful demands on an ongoing basis burnout: psychological strains
grinding ones teeth at night, being overly critical and bossy, excessive smoking, compulsive gum chewing behavioral strains
have a strong sense of time urgency and tend to be impatient, hard-driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, and even hostile type A behavior pattern
refers to the help that people receive when they are confronted with stressful demands social support
refers to the help that people receive that can be used to address the stressful demand directly instrumental support
help people receive in addressing the emotional distress that accompanies stressful demands emotional support
hindrance stressors have a...relationship with job perfomance weak negative
result in strains and negative emotions that reduce the overall level of energy and attention that people could otherwise bring to their job duties hindrance stressors
hindrance stressors have a...relationship with organizational committment strong negative
managers ask questions about the nature of the jobs and their organization to estimate whether high stress levels may be a problem stress audit
occurs when two people share the responsibilities of a single job job sharing
gives employees the opportunity to take time off work to engage in alternative activity sabbatical
aimed at increasing job related competencies and skills training interventions
help employees manage and balance the demands that exist in the different roles they have supportive practices
relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral techniques, health and wellness programs reduce strains
set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistance motivation
employees who are...completely invest themselves and their energies into their jobs engaged
describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses expectancy theory
represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task expectancy
belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success self efficacy
represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes instrumentality
reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance valence
cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences needs
motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance extrinsic motivation
motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward intrinsic motivation
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort goal setting theory
assigning employees...will result in higher levels of performance specific and difficult goals
assignment of a specific and difficult goal shapes peoples own... self-set goals
internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress self-set goals
goals trigger the creation of... task strategies
learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance task strategies
updates on employees progress toward goal attainmetn feedback
reflects how complicated the information and actions involved in a task are, as well as how much the task changes task complexity
defined as the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it goal committment
S.M.A.R.T specific, measurable, achievable, results-based, time-sensitive
acknowledges that motivation doesnt just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people equity theory
you compare your ratio of outcomes and inputs to the ratio of some... comparison other
some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity comparison other
any imbalance in ratios triggers... equity distress
internal tension that can only be alleviated by restoring balance to the ratios equity distress
most powerful driver of citizenship behavior job equity
most powerful driver of employee withdrawal occupational equity
reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose psychological empowerment
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a persons own ideals and passions meaningfulness
reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks self-determination
captures a persons belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully competence
reflects the sense that a persons actions make a difference- that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose impact
strongest performance effect is... self-efficacy comptence
people who feel a sense of internal...tend to outperform those who doubt their capanilities self-confidence
second most powerful motivating force difficult goals
motivational force created by high levels of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy is the... next most powerful motivational variable for task performance
...have a somewhat weaker effect on task performance perceptions of equity
represents the most common element of organizational compensation plans merit pay
reflects the prominence of its brand in the minds of the public and the perceived quality of its goods reputation
defined as the willingness to be vulnerable to a trustee based on the positive expectations about the authorities actions and intentions trust
reflects the perceived fairness of an authorities decision making justice
reflects the degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generality accepted norms ethics
means that your personality traits include a general propensity to trust others disposition-based trust
means that trust is rooted in a rational assessment of the authorities trustworthiness cognition-based trust
depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond any rational assessment affect-based trust
general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon trust propensity
characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust trustworthiness
skills, competencies, and areas of expertise that enable an authority to be successful in some specific area ability
belief that the authority wants to do good for the trustor, apart from any selfish or profit-centered motives benevolence
perception that the authority adheres to a set of values and principles that the trustor finds acceptable integrity
reflects the perceived fairness of decision making outcomes distributive justice
reflects the perceived fairness of decision making processes procedural justice
concerns giving employees a chance to express their opinions and views during the course of decision making voice
provides employees with a chance to request an appeal when a procedure seems to have worked ineffectively correctability
help ensure that procedures are neutral and objective, as opposed to biased and discriminatory consistency, bias suppression, representativeness, and accuracy
reflects the perceived fairness of the treatment received by employees from authorities interpersonal justice
pertains to whether authorities treat employees in a dignified and sincere manner respect
reflects whether authorities refrain from making improper or offensive comments propriety rule
reflects the perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authorities informational jsutice
mandates that authorities explain decision making procedures and outcomes in a comprehensive and reasonable manner justification rule
requires that their communications be honest and candid truthfulness rule
occurs when employees expose illegal or immoral actions by their employer whistle-blowing
occurs when an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical code or principle is relevant to the circumstances moral awareness
captures the degree to which the issue has ethical urgency moral intensity
captures the degree to which people chronically perceive and consider issues of morality during their experiences moral attentiveness
reflects the process people use to determine whether a particular course of action is ethical or unethical moral judgement
...argues that as people age and mature, they move through several stages of moral development- each more mature and sophisticated that the prior one cognitive moral development theory
people begin their moral development at the... preconventional stage
at this stage, right vs. wrong is viewed in terms of the consequences of various actions for the individual preconventional stage
as people mature, their moral judgement reaches... conventional stage
at this stage, right vs. wrong is referenced to the expectations of ones family and ones society conventional stage
most sophisticated moral thinkers reach the... principled(or postconventional) stage
at this stage, right vs. wrong is referenced to a set of defined, established moral pronciples principled(or postconventional)stage
reflects an authoritys degree of commitment to the moral course of action moral intent
one driver of moral intent moral identity
degree to which a person self-identifies as a moral person moral identity
trust relates to performance because it increases and employees... ability to focus
trust also influences...and...because it allows employees to develop social exchange relationships instead of economic exchange relationships with their employers citizenship behavior...counterproductive behavior
relationships that are based on narrowly defined, quid pro quo obligations that are specified in advance and have an explicit repayment schdule economic exchange
based on vaguely defined obligations that are open ended and long term in repayment schedule social exchange
...is a perspective that acknowledges that the responsibility of a business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and citizenship expectations of society corporate social responsibility
reflects relatively permanent changes in an employees knowledge or skill that result from experience learning
refers to the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem decision making
knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people expertise
kind of information you are likely to think about when you picture someone sitting down at a desk to learn explicit knowledge
what employees can typically learn only through experience tacit knowledge
we learn through... reinforcement, observation, and experience
says that we learn by observing the link between our voluntary behavior and the consequences that follow it operant conditioning
occurs when positive outcomes follows a desired behavior positive reinforcement
occurs when an unwanted outcomes is removed following a desired behavior negative reinforcement
two contingencies used to decrease undesired behaviors... punishment and extinction
occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior punishment
occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following and unwanted behavior extinction
simplest schedule of reinforcement and happens when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired nehavior continuous reinforcement
happens when reinforcement does not follow each instance of desired behavior intermittent reinforcement
workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time, and the length of time between reinforcement periods stays the same fixed interval schedule
designed to reinforce behavior at more random points in time variable interval schedule
reinforce behavior after a certain number of them have been exhibited fixed ratio schedule
reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors variable ration schedule
...argues that people in organizations that have the ability to learn through the observation of others social learning theory
...happens when employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior behavioral modeling
where building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence learning orientation
...focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them performance-prove orientation
...focus on demonstrating competence so that others will not think poorly of them performance-avoid orientation
decisions that become somewhat automatic because a persons knowledge allows him or her to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action needs to be taken programmed decisions
can be described as emotionally charged judgments that arise though quick, non conscious, and holistic associations intuition
...is perhaps never more important than it is during a crisis intuitive decision making
when a situation arises that is new, complex and not recognized, it calls for a...on the part of the employee nonprogrammed decision
...offers a step-by-step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives rational decision-making model
notion that decision makers simply do not have to ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision bounded rationality
results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative considered satsficing
the tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations selective perception
belief that others think, feel, and act the same way that we do projection bias
holds that people identify themselves by the groups to which they belong and perceive and judge others by their group memberships social identity theory
occurs when people make assumptions about others on the basis of their membership in a social group stereotype
when confronted with situations of uncertainty that require a decision on out part, we often use... heuristics
simple, efficient, rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily heuristics
tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is easier to recall availability bias
argues that people have a tendency to judge others behaviors as due to internal factors fundamental attribution error
occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors self-serving bias
did others act the same way under similar situations? consensus
does this person tend to act differently in other circumstances? distinctiveness
does this person always do this when performing this task? consistency
internal attribution will occur if there is...consensus,...distinctiveness, and...consistency low...low...high
external attribution will occur if there is a...consensus,...distinctiveness, and...consistency high...high...low
decision to continue to follow a failing course of action escalation of committment
...influences job performance learning
learning is....to organizational commitment only weakly related
having higher levels of...is associated with slight increases in emotional attachment to the firm job knowledge
systematic effort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior training
transfer of knowledge from older, experienced workers to younger employees knowledge transfer
ensures that employees have the ability to observe and learn from those in the company with significant amount of tacit knowledge behavior modeling training
groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time communities of practice
occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviors used on the job are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to the workplace once the learner returns to the job transfer of training
...are 21% more likely to describe job as stressful managers
...depends on both nature of the demand and the person who confronts it stress
...explains how stressors are perceived and appraised , as well as how people respond to them transactional theory of stress
the...the responsibility, the...stressful you will be higher...more
...is an example of emotion-focused coping venting
when facing stressors, your body goes through these 3 different stages alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion
...are more likely to appraise demands as being stressful rather than benign type A behavior
challenge stressors have a...relationship with job performance weak
challenge stressors have a...relationship with organizational commitment moderate
...can result in prolonged illness, as well as spread of illness and ultimately a downward spiral of impaired performance and employee health presenteeism
motivation is a critical consideration because job performance often requires high levels of both... ability and motivation
direction of effort is dictated by 3 beliefs... expectancy, instrumentality, valence
motivation...as successful performance is linked to more and more attractive outcomes increases
first stronger driver of goals self-efficacy
second strongest driver of goals specific ans difficult goals
allows you to restore balance mentally without altering your behavior cognitive disortion
motivation has a...correlation with job performance strong
intangible assets that can take a long time to build reputation
four determinants that shape individual belief are,,, family, peers, individual events, values and morals
basic areas of concerns for managerial ethics are the relationship of... -firm to employees -employees to firm -firm to other economic agents
how people ought to act prescriptive thread of ethics
how people tend to act descriptive thread of ethics
high in...if potential for harm is high and there is social pressure surrounding it moral intensity
four approaches to social responsibility are... observationist, defense, accommodative, reactive
moral awareness, judgement, and intent should result in high levels of both... benevolence and integrity
trust affects job performance because it...correlates with task performance moderately
variable schedules lead to...levels of performance higher
a...improves self-confidence, feedback seeking behavior, learning strategy development, and learning performance learning goal orientation
...allows decision makers to decide more quickly and confidently tacit knowledge
1st step: identify important criteria 2nd step: generate a list of alternatives 3rd step: evaluate alternatives against criteria 4th step: select alternative with best outcome 5th step: implement alternative rational decision-making model
process of selecting, organizing, storing, and retrieving information about the environment perception
...has its own complications but the potential for transferring knowledge is significant social networking
key components of learning practice and repetition
Created by: Bright265