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Chem111 test 3 prep

Practice test for Chem 111, alcohols.

QuestionAnswer
The functional group of alcohol and phenols is the __ group. hydroxyl
What is the general formula for alcohols? R-OH (R represents any alkyl group)
For phenols, the R is what kind of group? aryl
An aryl group is an aromatic ring with one __ missing. hydrogen
Ethers have 2 __ or __ groups attached to the oxygen atom. alkyl or aryl groups
Ethers may be thought of as substituted __. alcohols
Thiols contain the __ group. Sulfhydryl group, -SH
What is the structure of a thiol? R-SH
The general formula for thiols is ? R-O-R'
Many important biological molecules, including sugars, fats, and proteins, contain __ and/or __ groups. hydroxyl or thiol groups
In biological systems, the hydroxyl group is often involved in a variety of reactions such as __, __, __, __. oxidation, reduction, hydration, dehydration
How is the hydroxyl group represented in a formula? OH (oxygen and hydrogen)
An aromatic ring with one hydrogen missing is called an __ group. aryl
Oxidation is the __ of reduction. opposite
What has 2 aryl or alkyl groups attached to the oxygen atom? ethers
In glycolysis, several general steps center on the __ of the hydroxyl group. reactivity
To make an ether, you take an H (hydrogen) off and replace it with an __ or __ group. alkyl or aryl
What is the opposite of dehydration? hydration
What process harvests ATP from glucose in the body? glycolysis
The thiol group is in the structure of some __ __. amino acids
The thiol group in the structure of some amino acids is essential for keeping __ in the proper 3-dimensional shape for biological function. proteins
In general, an alcohol is an organic compound that contains a __ group attached to an __ group. hydroxyl group attached to an alkyl group
The -OH group of alcohols is very (polar or nonpolar?) polar
Many important biological molecules, including __, __, and __ contain hydroxyl and/or thiol groups. sugars (carbs), fats (lipids), and proteins
Hydrogen bonds can form between __ molecules. alcohol
Hydrogen bonds are not chemical bonds, but a __-__ attraction. dipole-dipole
Why do alcohols boil at much higher temps than other hydrocarbons? intermolecular hydrogen bonding
The thiol group in some amino acids is essential for keeping proteins in what kind of shape? This shape is vital to biological function. three-dimensional
A protein that has lost its 3-dimensional shape has been __. denatured
What is an alcohol? An organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group attached to an alkyl group.
Alcohols with fewer than __ carbons are very soluble in water. 4 (or 5) carbons
Which part of the alcohol is hydrophobic? nonpolar region
Which pare of the alcohol is hydrophilic? the polar part
Because of the __ __ bonding, alcohols boil at much higher temps than other hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight. intermolecular hydrogen bonding
Diols have 2 __. -OH's
What kind of bonds can form between alcohol molecules? hydrogen
Triols have 3 __. -OH's
Are diols and triols more or less water soluble than alcohols with a single -OH group? more
The presence of __ __ in large biological molecules (like proteins and nucleic acids) allows intramolecular hydrogen bonding that keeps these molecules in the shape needed for biological functions. hydroxyl groups
Why are alcohols with fewer than 4-5 carbons very soluble in water? because of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the alcohol and the water molecules
The presence of hydroxyl groups in large biological molecules (like proteins and nucleic acids) allows __ __ bonding that keeps these molecules in the shape needed for biological functions. intramolecular hydrogen bonding
Alcohols with fewer than 4-5 carbons are very soluble in water because of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the __ and the __ molecules. alcohol and water molecules
Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on the number of __ groups attached to the carbinol carbon. alkyl
The carbinol carbon is the one that is attached to the __ group. hydroxyl, or -OH, group
If the carbinol carbon has 2 hydrogens, it is probably __. primary
If the carbinol carbon has no hydrogens, it is probably __. tertiary
If the carbinol carbon has 1 hydrogen, it is probably __. secondary
The addition of a __ molecule to the C=C (carbon-to-carbon bond) of an alkene produces an alcohol. water
Adding a water molecule to an alkene is called __. hydration
Hydration require a trace of __ as a catalyst. acid/H+
Alcohol may also be prepared by the __ of aldehydes and ketones. hydrogenation (this is a reduction reaction)
Alcohols undergo dehydration (loss of a water molecule) when heated with concentrated __ or __ acid. sulfuric (H2SO4)or phosphoric (H3PO4) acid
Dehydration is an elimination reaction where a molecule loses atoms or __. ions
What is formed from a dehydration reaction? An alkene and water.
Dehydration of some alcohols produces a __ of products. mixture
In an elimination reaction, the alkene with the __ number of alkyl groups on the double bonded carbons is the major product of the reaction. greatest number
Alcohol can be oxidized with a variety of oxidizing agents into __, __, __ acids. aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids
The addition of a water molecule to the carbon-to-carbon bond of an __ produces an alcohol. alkene
Alcohol may also be prepared by the hydrogenation (reduction reaction) of __ and __. aldehydes and ketones
Whose rule says that, in an elimination reaction, the alkene with the greatest number of alkyl groups on the double bonded carbons is the major product of the reaction. Zaitsev's rule
What is the formula for sulfuric acid? H2SO4
What is the formula for phosphoric acid? H3PO4
An alkene and water are formed from __ reactions. dehydration
The oxidizing agents used most commonly to oxidize an alcohol are solutions of basic __ __ and __ acid. potassium permangonate and chromic acid.
Oxidation of a primary alchohol produces an __. aldehyde
Oxidation of a secondary alcholo produces a __. ketone
In an elimination reaction, the alkene with the greatest number of alkyl groups on the double bonded carbons is the __ product of the reaction. major
Which kind of alcohol cannot be oxidized? tertiary
Are aldehydes stable? no
Potassium permangonate and chromic acid are the most commonly used __ agents on alchol. oxidizing
In an elimination reaction, the alkene with the greatest number of alkyl groups on the __ __ carbons is the major product of the reaction. double bonded
What is the common name for the medically important methanol? wood alcohol
What is the common name for the medically important ethanol? grain alcohol
What is the common name for the medically important 2-Propenol? isopropyl alcohol
What is the common name for the medically important 1,2-Ethanediol? ethyline glycol
What is the common name for the medically important 1,2,3-Propanetriol? glycerol
Oxidation is a loss of __. electrons
Reduction is a gain of __. electrons
In organic systems, oxidation can be recognized as a __ of oxygen AND/OR a loss of __. gain of oxygen, loss of hydrogen
In organic systems, a reduction reaction may involve a __ of oxygen or a __ of hydrogen. loss of oxygen, gain of hydrogen
An alkane may be oxidized to an alcohol by __ an oxygen. gaining
A primary or secondary alcohol may be oxidized to an aldehyde or a ketone by the __ of hydrogen. loss
Finally, an aldehyde may be oxidized to a carboxylic acid by __ an oxygen. gaining
What is the order of oxidation from an alkane to a carboxylic acid? List, in order, the compounds that form, starting with an alkane and ending with the carboxylic acid. 1. alkane 2. primary alchohol 3. aldehyde 4. carboxylic acid
Reduction is a (gain or loss?) of electrons. gain
In living systems, oxidation/reduction reactions are catalyzed by the actions of various __ called oxidoreductases. enzymes
Oxidoreductases require compounds called __ to accept or donate a hydrogen in the reactions that they catalyze. coenzymes
Oxidation is a (gain or loss?) of electrons? loss
An __ may be oxidized to an alcohol by gainin an oxygen. alkane
A primary or secondary __ may be oxidized to an aldehyde or a ketone by the loss of hydrogen. alchohol
Finally, an __ may be be oxidized to a carboxylic acid by gaining an oxygen. aldehyde
When oxidizing from an alkane to an carboxylic acid, the sequence of events would be what? Include the compounds that form and what they gain or lose. 1. alkane gains an oxygen 2. 1* or 2* alcohol loses a hydrogen 3. The aldehyde or ketone gains an oxygen to become a carboxylic acid.
Phenols are compounds in which the -OH group is attached to the __ __. benzene ring
In living systems, oxidation/reduction reactions are catalyzed by the actions of enzymes called __. oxidoreductases
Are phenols polar or nonpolar? polar
What kind of phenols are soluble in water? simple phenols
Oxidreductases required compounds called coenzymes to accept or donate a __ in the reactions that they catalyze. hydrogen
Where can phenols be found? 1. flavorings 2. fragrances 3. preservatives 4. germicides
What do you call compound in which the -OH group is attached to the benzene ring? Phenols
What preservative is made from a phenol? butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
What is the order of reduction from a carboxylic acid to an alkane? List the compounds that form in order. 1. carboxylic acid 2. aldehyde 3. primary alcohol 4. alkane
Ethers have what general formula? R-O-R'
The R' (R prime) symbol means that this R isn't necessarily the same as the previous __ in the structure. R
The carbon-oxygen bond in an ether is polar or nonpolar? polar (So ethers are polar)
Can ethers form hydrogen bonds? No, so they can't have -OH groups
The boiling points of ethers are higher or lower than those of alkanes with similar molecular weight? higher
The boiling points of ethers are higher or lower than those of alchols with similar molecular weight? lower
When reducing from a carboxylic acid to an alkane, the sequence of events would be what? Include the compounds that form and what they gain or lose. 1. carboxylic acid loses an oxygen 2. aldehyde gains a hydrogen 3. primary alcohol loses an oxygen 4. an alkane is formed.
The more molecular weight, the __ the boiling point. higher
In the IUPAC naming system, the -OR substituent of an ehter is names as an __ group. alkoxy
An alkoxy group is an __ group bonded to an oxygen. alkyl
In the common naming system, ethers are named by placing the names of the 2 __ groups as prefixes in front of the word "ether." alkyl
Are ethers chemically inert? Yes
What does volatile mean? easily vaporized
Ethers are highly __ and highly __. volatile and flammable
Ethers may be prepared by what kind of reaction? dehydration
An alkoxy group is an alkyl group bonded to an __. oxygen
Dehydration reactions occur when you lose a __ molecule between 2 alcohols. water
What is needed for a dehydration reaction to form an ether? heat and an acid (which will have an H+)
At least one product of a dehydration reaction will be a __ molecule when forming an ether. water
What was the first general anesthetic used by William Morton? Diethyl ether
An __ group is an alkyl group bonded to an oxygen. alkoxy
Halogenated ethers are routinely used as __ __ today. general anesthetics
Dehydration reactions occur when you lose a water molecule between 2 __. alchohols
Thiols are compounds that contain the __ group. sulfhydryl or -SH
When naming thiols, the suffix -thiol follows the name of the __ compound. parent
The amino acid __ is a thiol. cysteine
2 cysteine molecules can undergo oxidation to form __. cystine
The disulfide bond a structure will be represented by what symbols? -S-S-
__ __ are routinely used a general anesthetics today. Halogenated ethers
An alkoxy group is an __ group bonded to an __. alkyl group bonded to an oxygen
Coenzyme A is a __ and serves as a carrier of acetyl groups in biochemical reactions. thiol
Acetyl groups are written how? CH3CO-
The sulfhydryl group in an unnumbered cyclo structure can go __. anywhere, or on any of the carbons
Hydrogenation is a __ process. reduction
One R group means that an alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary? primary
Two R groups mean that an alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary? secondary
Three R groups mean that an alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary? tertiary
The symbol [O] refers to an ? oxidizing agent
Hydroxyl refers to an __ group. -OH group
Created by: IsaacJ