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BioChem Exam 1 terms

List of vocab and definitions

TermDefinition
Poly A polymerase Transcription help: generates a 3' poly A tail which can carry a large continent of binding proteins which help protect the 3' of the transcript from exonucleases. Can also provide a "handle" for proteins that deliver mRNA to ribosome
Exon (protein coding segment) involved in splicing where introns are cut out and exons are joined together.
2' Deoxyribose In DNA sugar is 2' deoxyribose where as RNA is ribose.
60S subunit these in general are individual chains but this # unit is is the large subunit of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes.
Cap At least 3 enzymes activities modify the 5' end of the emerging mRNA to produce this structure that protects the polynucleotide from 5' exonucleases.
TATA box An element that resembles the prokaryotic promoter.Is necessary for transcription because RNA polymersase II cannot recognize the initiation sites on its own.
Wobble Rule Francis Crick proposed that the third codon position or the 5' anticodon position experience some flexibility in the geometry of their hydrogen bonding.
Transpeptidation The free amino group of the aminoacyl -tRNA in the A sits attacks the ester bond that links the peptidyl bond to the P site. This reaction lengthens the peptidyl group by one amino acid at its C-terminal end. This is why polypeptide grows in N->C.
tRNA Delivery of amino acids to ribosome during translation.
TFII H a helicase that unwinds the DNA in an ATP dependent manner.
Spliceosome a complex of five small RNA molecules and hundreds of proteins. It recognizes conserved sequences at the 5' intron/
CTD the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Has highly conserved set of 7 amino acids that is repeated 52 times in vertebrates.
RNA polymerase III Basically: synthesizes TRNAs and small RNAs and is inhibited by high concentrations of aminitin.
Exonuclease An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic excision of a nucleotide residue from the end of a polynucleotide strand.
Inosine is commonly found in tRNAs and is essential for proper translation of the genetic code in wobble base pairs.
Ribozyme An RNA molecule that has catalytic activity.
Degenerate This happens to the genetic code because several mRNA codons may respond to the same amino acid.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) to ensure accurate translation the synthetase attaches the appropriate amino acid to the tRNA bearing the corresponding anti-codon. (Interacts with tRNA anticodon and aminoacylation site)
TF II E Its main role in the transcriptional complex is to recruit TFIIH to the site, then regulate the helicase and kinase activities of TFIIH. This is also necessary for RNA Polymerase II to switch into elongation mode
P site (Peptidyl) binds the tRNA with the growing polypeptide chain
Intron A portion of a gene that is transcribed but excised by splicing prior to translation.
Elongation Factor II Binds to the A site to promote translocation following peptide bond formation.
Methyl transferase type of transferase enzyme that transfers a methyl group from a donor to an acceptor.
Elongation Factor I Delivers aminoacyl -tRNA to A site of ribosome during elongation.
28S rRNA is the eukaryotic nuclear homologue of the prokaryotic 23S ribosomal RNA; this is the structural RNA for the large component of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components of all eukaryotic cells.
40 S subunit is the small subunit of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes.is much larger than the prokaryotic 30S subunit and contains many additional protein segments, as well as rRNA expansion segments.
Release Factor III GTP hydrolysis by _______ allows the release factors to dissociate
RNA polymerase I Basically: synthesizes pre-ribosomal RNA
TFII F binds to RNA Pol II when the enzyme is already unbound to any other transcription factor, thus avoiding it from contacting DNA outside the promoter. Furthermore, this stabilizes the RNA polymerase II while it's contacting TBP and TFIIB.
TFIIB localizes to the nucleus where it forms a complex (the DAB complex) with transcription factors IID and IIA. The protein serves as a bridge between transcription factor IID, which initially recognizes the promoter sequence, and RNA polymerase II.
Promoter The DNA sequence at which RNA polymerase binds to initiate the transcription.
Initiation Factor II Delivers initiator tRNA to P site of ribosome
Snrnps (small nuclear ribonucleic particles) are RNA-protein complexes that combine with unmodified pre-mRNA and various other proteins to form a spliceosome
RNA polymerase II responsible for transcribing protein coding genes Basically:
18S rRNA is the structural RNA for the small component of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components of all eukaryotic cells.
Initiation Factor III binds to the small ribosomal subunit to promote the dissociation of the large and small subunits.
Lariat The 5' G of the intron is joined in a 2', 5'-phosphodiester bond to an adenosine near the 3' end of the intron.
Created by: Awesomesauce182