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X-ray Physics

QuestionAnswer
What is the SI unit of measurement for electrical power? Watt
What is the SI unit of resistance? OHM
Briefly explain the Compton effect. Scatter Radiation, happens in the patient, has no value in x-ray, is completely unwanted.
What is a photon? Bundle of energy, heterogeneous, wavelike
What is another word for "Breaking Radiation"? Bremsstrahlung
What is Physics? The study of physical forces and quantities or the scientific study of matter, force, and motion and how they relate to each other.
what are SI units based off of ? The metric system
how is mass measured in SI units? Kilograms
How is matter defined? Anything that has mass and volume. The weight is related to gravity.
What is the word used to define ability to do work? energy
What are 2 types of energy? Potential and Kinetic
What does the Atomic number signify? the number of protons
What is the number of protons and neutrons called in an atom? Atomic Mass
what are the structures of an atom and what are their charges? Proton (+) Neutron (neutral) Electron (-)
An atom is defined as what? The smallest particle in which matter can be divided while still maintaing it's unique properties.
What is the nucleus of an atom? protons and neutrons
Niels Bohr did what in 1913? Came up with the concept that electrons orbited around the nucleus
How many electrons are in the nucleus of an atom? None ;)
How are electrons bound to an atom? EBE or electron Binding Energy, and that is based on the number of protons.
which electron shell has the most EBE? K
What is the symbol and Atomic Number for Aluminum, Tungsten, and Lead? Al 13, W 74, Pb 82
How does the formula 2n(squared) work? n is the orbit you are talking about so starting with K it would go down the alphabet, so M would be 3 so you would say 3 squared which is 9 then 9*2=18 so the M orbit can hold 18 electrons
define electricity free electrons that travel on a path from one point to another.
define ionization the process of gaining or losing an electron
what does it mean when an ion is cation? anion? Cation- more positive ion, Anion- more negative ion
What is the Law of Conservation say? Energy cannot be created or destroyed bit can be changed into other forms of energy.
What are the 3 laws of Electricity? 1. Opposites charges attract, like charges repel. 2. Only negative charges move through a conductor. 3. Electric charges reside on the surface of a conductor
In OHM's law, what do the V, I, and R, represent? V-Volts, I-Current, R- Resistance
What is OHM's Law? the amount of resistance overcome by one volt to cause an amp to flow.
What is power? the amount of work that electricity does over a given amount of time
electrical charges are measured in what? Coulomb (C)
What is an Ampere? A unit of measuring electrical current in a circut
What is a Current? the quality of electrons flowing from one point to another.
How are Magnetic fields and Electric currents related? Electric currents can create magnetic fields, and Magnetic fields can create electricity
When you are running a current on a wire it's just a current, but when you wrap a wire around an iron core it creates a what? Magnetic field
What happens to the magnetic field when you decrease the number of time the wire is wrapped around the core? the field is weaker.
Electromagnetic Fields require what kind of current? AC
What is Radiation? Energy traveling through space.
How much mass does Electromagnetic Radiation have? None
what is a frequency? The number of cycles passing through a given point in 1 second.
When a wavelength decreases the frequency what? Increases
X-rays with shorter wavelengths have what frequency and can do what? Higher frequencies and are more penetrating.
What is an isotope? two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
What kind of motor does the tube use? induction motor
What is the range kVp for a typical x-ray? 40-125
what are the two main types of Ionizing radiation? Diagnostic and Gamma X-rays
What is Electricity? Form of energy that is created from the movement of electrons.
what is a unit of energy? a joule
What are the 5 types of energy? electromagnetic, nuclear, thermal, chemical, mechanical.
What does a circuit breaker do? automatically cuts power if values are too high to prevent circuit overload to prevent damage to the equipment.
Force x Distance = what? Work
Nuclear Energy is released from what? radionuclides
what kind of energy do we deal with in radiology? Electromagnetic Energy
What is the speed of light? 186,000 miles per second
What is rectification? converting AC current to DC current so it can only flow in one direction.
when can an X-ray machine produce an X-ray when the current has not been rectified? Never.
Do X-rays have a positive or negative charge? Neither, they are neutral
what are three electrical factors that are part of a circuit? Resistance, Current, and Potential Difference
Define resistance any property in the circuit that hinders the flow of current,
What are 3 things that give you resistance material, length and distance of the conductor.
Define Potential difference the force or speed of the electron flow in the current
AC current moves in what way? Negative to Positive
What is EMF? what does it do? Electromotive force, it is the force pushing the electrons, The volt.
In what kind of circuit does each component have it's own direct path to both the negative and the positive sides of the circuit? Parallel Circuit
How many times does the current alternate per second in the US? 60
A battery is an example of what kind of current? Direct Current
what are two other names for voltage? potential difference and EMF (electromotive force)
what are the components of a circuit? Power source, conductor, load.
The autotransformer is located where, or in which section, on the circuit board? Main Primary Circuit
A typical Xray machine has how many what in the rectifier? 4 Diodes
A step down happens where on the circuit board? Filament circuit
what houses the filaments? Focusing cup
the stepdown transformer take the amps and voltage to what? and for what reason? 3-5 amps, 5-15 volts, if the amp/volts weren't decreased it would be too much power/heat going to the filaments and they would burn out.
What is the Target? the anode
Why does the rotor spin? to dissipate heat
Something that is used to correct fluctuations in the incoming voltage is called a what? Line Voltage compensator
what kind of transformer converts volts to kilovolts? stepup
An autotransformer is which type of induction where as a step up/down transformer is what? Auto-Self induction Step- Mutual induction
What is electromagnetic induction? electricity produced when conductor is placed between two magnetic fields.
what happens to the amps when you increase the volts they decrease.
The lower the volts the __?__ the amps. higher
mA meter measures what? tube current
What controls the autotransformer? the Tech
what does the autotransformer control? Major and minor kV levels
What does a full wave rectifier do? moves the bottom 1/2 of the wave to the top so that it is now DC current
What does a half wave rectifier do? suppresses the bottom 1/2 of the wave while producing DC current
What machine can you do a spin-top test on? Single phase machines
A pulse represents what? Crest or ripples of a frequency
A 3 phase 6 pulse machine produces how many more usable photons than a single phase ? 35%
A 3 phase 12 pulse machine produces how many more usable photons than a single phase ? 41%
What is an instrument for absorbing scatter radiation? a grid
What are the 5 different kind of wave frequencies? 1/2 wave, full wave, 3 phase 6 pulse, 3 phase 12 pulse, and high frequency.
What is the main source of scatter radiation? Subject/Object/Patient.
The actual focal spot is __?__ than the effective focal spot. Larger
Why is the tube vacuumed? so the electrons can flow unobstructed from cathode to target.
What is essential to produce an X-ray? Source, Power, Target.
What does the penetrometer do? tells the ability of penetrating power.
what is thermionic emission? (boiling off of electrons) When the filament is heated by high current electrons are created
What happens in Brems x-ray? the electrons slow around the nucleus and abruptly change directions which creates a photon
what is the EBE of the K shell? 69.5
100% brems x-ray happens when? when kVp is below 70.
below 70 kVp what percentage of the beam is characteristic x-ray? 0%
When are characteristic photons produced? when the kVp is above 70
What happens in characteristic radiation? A hole is created in the K shell of the tungsten atom and an electron from the L shell fills the one in the K shell and when that happens a photon with tungsten characteristics is emitted.
Created by: christina325