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ch 19 vocab

spontaneous process a process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction, as written or described, without needing to be driven by an outside source of energy.
reversible process a process that can go back and forth between states along exactly the same path;a system at equilibrium is reversible if equilibrium can be shifted by an infinitesimal modification of a variable such as temperature
irreversible process a process that is not reversible; and as a result, some of its potential for accomplishing work is dissipated as heat. any spontaneous process is irreversible in practice
isothermal process one that occurs at constant temperature
second law of thermodynamics when a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is non-spontaneous in the reverse direction. in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases
entropy a thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found
translational motion movement in which an entire molecule moves in a definite direction
vibrational motion movement of the atoms within a molecule in which they move periodically toward and away from one another
rotational motion movement of a molecule as though it is spinning like a top
microstate the state of a system at a particular instant; one of many possible states of the system
third law of thermodynamics a law stating that the entropy of a pure, crystalline solid at absolute zero temperature is zero
standard molar entropy (S degree) the entropy value for a mole of a substance in its standard state
Gibbs free energy a thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy; in the form G= H - TS
standard free energies of formation ( delta G degree sub f) the change in free energy associated with the formation of a substance from its elements under standard conditions
Created by: agloskowski