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CHEM 343- Unit 1

aromaticity requirements 4n+2 total electrons (odd number of pairs); all atoms must be sp2 or sp hybridized
antiaromatic compounds 4 pi electrons -> free radicals, very unstable
inductive effects electronegativity -> almost everything is more EN than H, but inductive effects aren't as important as resonance
Sandmeyer reactions use N2 on benzene to add other substituents in its place
class 1 carbonyls undergo nucleophilic acyl substitution rxns (3rd ox level)
class 2 carbonyls undergo acyl additions (2nd ox level)
zero oxidation level all alkanes (bound to 0 more EN atoms)
1st oxidation level (alcohol ox level) -> bound to 1 more EN atom
2nd oxidation level (ketone ox level) -> bound to 2 more EN atoms
3rd oxidation level (acid ox level) -> bound to 3 more EN atoms
4th oxidation level bound to 4 more EN atoms
kicking out LG on carbonyl addition more basic= better at kicking out LG, but this can be overwhelmed by concentration effects of nucleophile
three important hydride sources sodium borohydride, lithium aluminum hydride, DIBAL
what does LiAlH4 reduce? acids, amides, esters, ketones aldehydes
what does DIBAl reduce? acids (requires heat!), amides, esters, ketones aldehydes
what does NaBH4 reduce? ketones and aldehydes only
# pi electrons- antiaromatic 4n
# pi electrons- aromatic 4n + 2
Created by: melaniebeale