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BJ Chem Ch 2 Matter

Takes up space and has volume (inertia) matter
How particles are packed into a material (d=m/v) density
how easily a material is hammered into shape malleability
how easily a material can be drawn into a wire ductility
Measures the ability of a material to conduct heat or electricty conductivity
Examples: flammable, reactive, corrosive, oxidizes Chemical Properties
Examples: shape, color, hardness, melting point, boiling point, size, odor, color, ductility, malleability, density, conductivity Physical Properties
What type of change? change of temperature, gas formation, precipitation Chemical Change
different types of particles are visible heterogeneous
different types of particles are NOT visible homogeneous
a homogeneous mixture solution
made up of one type of particle pure substance
substances that cannot be broken down into smaller substances by ordinary chemical means elements
smallest piece of an element made up of protons, neurons, electrons atom
He is considered __________ and not diatomic monoatomic
Molecules like H2, N2, O2 and all the halogens like Cl2 are ________________ molecules diatomic
S8 is an example of a _____________ molecule polyatomic
one or two letters that represent the name of an element symbol
two or more (same or different) atoms chemically bonded molecules
Molecules from two or more different elements chemically bonded (Earth Science: mineral) compound
Fe2O3 has _________ atoms five
Number in front of a formula which tells how many molecules or atoms coefficient
Number which tells how many atoms there are of a particular element in a formula subscript
Taking energy from the surroundings Endothermic
Giving energy to the surroundings Exothermic
The study of the conservation of energy Thermodynamics
Statement that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can only change form First law of thermodynamics
The total amount of mass and energy remains constant (another name for 1st law of thermo) Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy
Statement that in any energy change, the amount of usable energy decreases Second law of thermodynamics
Degeneration, increase in randomness, increase in chaos refers to which statement Second law of thermodynamics
Energy of motion kinetic energy
Energy of position (or in bonds) potential energy
the measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles temperature
the measure of the total kinetic energy of all the particles in a sample thermal energy
thermal energy in motion heat
1000 calories kilocalorie or Calorie
Scale? water freezes at 32' and boils at 212' Fahrenheit
Scale? water freezes at 0' and boils at 100' Celsius
Scale? water freezes at 273K and boils at 373K Kelvin
-273K Absolute zero
Translation (straight), rotation (spin), and vibration Three types of particle motion
Theory that all particles are in motion Kinetic Theory
State of Matter? low energy, only vibrate, definite shape, definite volume, no appreciable compression solid
Sate of matter? more energy but still touching, can move around, definite volume, no definite shape, no appreciable compression liquid
state of matter? much kinetic energy, independent particles, no definite volume, no definite shape, compressible gas
State of matter? electrons are ripped away from the nucleus plasma
Phase change? gas to liquid condensation
Phase change? liquid to gas vaporization
Phase change? liquid to solid freezing (solidification)
Phase change? solid to liquid melting
Phase change? solid to gas sublimation
Phase change? gas to solid deposition
Matter near absolute zero Bose-Einstein Condensate
a charged atom ion
A change which may alter the physical properties of the substance but not the substance itself physical change
high-temperature state of matter where protons and neutrons are broken down into elementary particles quark-gluon plasma
Changes in the identify of a material Chemical change
Material that can be separated into two or more pure substances Mixture
Represents molecules or formula units that make up compounds Chemical formula
The portion of the universe under study system
Sum of the potential and kinetic energies internal energy
English botanist who first described Brownian motion while studying pollen grains under a microscope Robert Brown
Law that states it is impossible to reach absolute zero The Third Law of Thermodynamics
SI unit of measure for energy joule
the amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius calorie
Created by: MArCHChemBJ