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Chapter 8

What is Quantum Mechanics? Theory that explains why the periodic trends in the periodic table exists
What happens when electrons spin on their axis? They generate a magnetic
Electrons spin up and down with the quantum number Ms. What are the values of Ms +1/2 or -1/2
What is the maximum number of orbitals in each sublevel? S - 1 orbital P - 3 Orbitals D - 5 Orbitals F - 7 Orbitals
Orbitals with the same energy are called? Degenerate
A sublevel has less energy when the L value is what? Lower
Energy is sublevels fill from what? Lowest to high
Pauli exclusion principle Only 2 electrons per orbital
What are Anions? When nonmetal atoms gain enough electrons to have 8 valence electrons
When are cations formed? when a metal atom loses all it's valence electrons, resulting in a new lower energy level valence shell
What is paramagnetism? Electron configurations with unpaired electrons means that the atom or ion will have a net magnetic field. (They will be attracted to a magnetic field)
Diamagnetism All electrons are paired - no magnetic field (slightly repelled by a magnetic field)
Where is atomic radius greatest? Bottom left
The size of an atom is related to what? The distance of the Valence electrons to the nucleus
cations are ____ than neutral atoms Smaller
Anions are _____ than neutral atoms Larger
What is Ionization energy? minumum amount of energy required to remove electron from atom or ion in Gas state
When is Ionization energy increased? Top right of periodic table (opposite of atomic radius)
Does the electrons get harder to remove the more you remove? Yes, because there is a greater positive charge, pulling them closer to the nucleus
What is the highest electron affinity in any period? Halogen
When does metallic character increase? Bottom left
Created by: tubaman300