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Fuels & Heats

Chapter 21

Saturated compound Contain no double or triple bonds
Unsaturated bonds Contain at least 1 double or triple bond
Alkane Contain only single bonds. Only made up with carbon + hydrogen
Homologous Series A series of uniform chemical type, show a graduation in physical properties, have general formula, have a similar method of preparation, each member differs from the previous by CH2 unit
Structural isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula
Alkene Contain 1 double bond. Only made up with hydrogen and carbon
Alkyne Conation 1 triple bond. Only made up of Carbon and hydrogen
Aliphatic compound open chains of carbon atoms and closed rings that resemble them in chemical properties
Aromatic Compounds Counds that conatain a benzene ring structure in their molecules
Octane Number A measure of the tendancy of the fuel to resist knocking with 100 being 2,2,4-trimethylpentance and 0 being heptane
Catalytic cracking the breaking down of long chain molecules into shorter chain molecules
Isomerisation Using heat to forse branching on shorter chains
Heat of reaction the heat change when the moles of the reactants indicated are compleatly reacted
Heat of Combustion the heat change when one mole of the substance is compleatly burned in excess oxygen
Kilogram Calorific Value the heat energy produced when 1kg of fuel is compleatly burned in oxygen
Bond Energy The energy required to break one mole of covelant bonds and to separate the neutral atoms compleatly from each other
Heat of neautralisation the heat change when one mole of H+ ions react with one mole OH- ions
Heat of formation The heat that takes place when one mole of a compound in its standard state is formed from its elements in their stard state
Hess's Law When chemical reaction happens in a number of defferent stages the sum of the heat changes in the separate stages is equal to the heat change if the reaction is carried out in one stage
Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be converted from one energy into another
Created by: MarkA0845