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# Chemistry

### Thermodynamics

TermDefinition
Kinetic Energy Equation KE=1/2mv^2
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy of Universe is Constant
Second Law of Thermodynamics For any Spontaneous Process, the entropy of the universe increases
Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute temperature is Zero
dE=q+w q=heat energy (MCdT) w=work energy (-PdV)
Specific Heat Capacity Heat required to raise temp of 1 gram of substance by 1 degree C
Molar Heat Capacity Heat required to raise temp of 1 mole of substance by 1 degree C
Calculate quantity of heat released or absorbed q=MCdT
Calculate Work W=-PdV dV = volume, P=external pressure
ΔH = ΔE + PΔV change in enthalpy/heat
If ΔH > 0? Endothermic
if ΔH < 0? Exothermic
Standard enthalpy change ΔHProducts - ΔHReactants
Particles-most freedom to least freedom Translational, Rotational, Vibrational
Gases can be condensed by Decreasing temperature or increasing pressure
A reaction is spontaneous if ΔG < 0 (Entropy of universe increases)
Standard Enthalpy Change for a reaction ΔSrxn = Sproducts Sreactants
Free Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions ΔGrxn = ΔHrxn TΔSrxn
Created by: tubaman300

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