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Chem 1 Sec 1

Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Hypothesis A tentative explanation or prediction based on experimental observations
Law Concise verbal or mathematical statement of a behavior or a relation that seems always to be the same under the same conditions
Theory A well tested, unifying principle that explains a body of facts. It is capable of suggesting new hypotheses that can be tested experimentally; guiding to understand the nature
What are the four points in an experiment? -
1. Results must be reproducible
2. Results must be sufficient detail that they can be used or reproduced by others (need multiple confirmation)
3. Conclusion should be reasonable and unbiased
4. Credit should be contributed to other scientists work if used
Qualitative Observation Points -
1. Stating if something is hot or cold with out a specify temperature
2. No numbers involved
3. Not measurable
4. Described by its appearance and color (large or small)
5. Identifying something by small
Quantitative Observation Points (3) -
1. A quantity that is measurable
2. Numbers with units that are expressed from measurements
3. Dimensions are given
7 types of dimensions Mass; Time; Distance; Volume; Density; Temp; Colors specified as wavelengths
States of Matter (3) Solid; Liquid; Gas
Describe solid matter Packed closely together; particles vibrate back and forth; particles squeeze past their neighbors to connected with a new set of partciles
Describe liquid matter Arranged randomly; are fluid; not confined in a specific location; can move past one another
Describe gas matter Far apart; move rapidly/not constrained; Molecules collide with one another; able to fill the spaces = volume
What states of mater can water be All
Solids Fixed volume; Shape may reflect the atomic and molecular arrangement; structure well understood
Liquids Have no fixed shape and may not fill the container completely; structure not well understand
Gases Expand to fill their container completely' well defined
How are liquids faster than solids? Time scale
Mixtures More than 1 pure substance presence
Name 2 mixtures Hetergenous and Homogenous mixtures
Hetergenous mixture Does not have a uniform composition. It's components are easily visually distinguishable
Homogenous mixture Doesn't have different properties. Consists of 2 or more substances in the same phase
Pure Substances Fixed composition; cannot be purified
How are pure substances classified? Elements and Compounds
Compounds Further reduced into two or more elements
Elements Consist of only one atom; cannot be condensed
Example of a hetergenous mixture Ni covering Si; NaCl and oil
Example of homogenous mixture NaCl + Water
Matter and its represtation Observe; Imagine; Represent
Observe Macroscopic (camera pic)
Imagine Particulate (To what we can't see)
Represent Symbolic (H20 liquid > H20 gas)
What does we use in chemistry to represent matter? Chemical formulas and symbols
1 meter = 1 cm
We are macroscopic: Large in size on the order of 100's of cm
Atoms and molecules are microscopic: On the order of 10^-12 m
1 nm = 10^-9 m
1 pm = 10^-12 m
How many elements are recorded? 117
Molecule Ammonia (NH3)
Ionic Compounds Iron pyrite (FeS2)
All compounds are made up of what? Molecules and Ions
Molecule is the smallest unit of what? A compound retaining the chemical characteristics
Ionic compounds are found by... Formula unit
Composition of molecules is given by... Molecule formula
List of physical properties Color; State; Melting/Boiling point; Density (mass/volume)
(Mass) Depends upon the amount of substance Extensive properties
Does not depend upon the amount of substance (Density) Intensive properties
What is teh purpose of lone pairs? Helps elements combine to help them become stable
How are water molecules attracted to one another? Hydrogen bonds
Methane molecules exhibit weak London forces (CH4)
Physical properties are affected by... Temperature
Density of water changes by... Temperature
The density of water increases when the temp... Increases (liquid)
The density of water decreases when temp... Is at low Celsius (ice)
Physical Property List Means of Separation List
Density Centrifugation
Boiling Point Distillaion
State of Matter Filtration
Intermolecular Forces Chromatography
Vapor Pressure Evaporation
Magnetism Magnets
Solubility Filtration
Graphite is made by what? Carbon
Chemical properties are... Chemical change
What does a chemical property indicate? How fast a chemical will go under a chemical change with another material
What can energy be classified as? Kinetic or Potential
Kinetic energy Is energy associated with motion
What types of motion (4) Thermal; motion of a marcoscopic object; Electrical; Wave motion (transverse and compression)
Potential energy Result's from an object's position
Potential energy points (5) -
1. Gravitational: An object held at height
2. Energy stored in molecules (chemical energy, food)
3. Energy stored in extended spring
4. Charged particles (electrostatic energy)
5. Nuclear energy (fusion)
Created by: animalsavior