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CY Exam 1 (Ch 1-3)

Celsius temperature scale temperature scale in which water has a freezing point of 0 degrees C and a boiling point of 100 degrees C
centimeter a unit of length in the metric system
How many centimeters are in one inch? 2.54 cm
chemical a substance that has the same composition and properties wherever it is found
chemistry the science that studies the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter
conversion factor a ratio in which the numerator and denominator are quantities from an equality or given relationship
cubic centimeter the volume of a cube that has 1-cm sides
density the relationship of the mass of an object to its volume expressed as grams per cubic centimeter, grams per milliliter, or grams per liter
equality a relationship between two units that measure the same quantity
exact number a number obtained by counting or by definition
gram the metric unit used in measurements of mass
International System of Units (SI) a system of units that modifies the metric system
Kelvin temperature scale a temperature scale on which the lowest possible temperature is 0 K
kilogram SI standard unit of mass
liter metric unit of volume that is slightly larger than a quart
mass a measure of the quantity of material in an object
measured number a number obtained when a quantity is determined by using a measuring device
meter the metric unit for length that is slightly longer than a yard
meter SI standard unit of length
metric system system of measurement used by scientists and in most countries of the world
milliliter metric unit of volume
prefix part of the name of a metric unit that precedes the base unit and specifies the size of the measurement; related on a decimal scale
scientific notation a form of writing large and small numbers using a coefficient that is at least one but less than ten, followed by a power of ten
second standard unit of time in the SI and metric system
significant figures the numbers recorded in a measurement
specific gravity relationship between the density of a substance and the density of water
temperature an indicator of the hotness or coldness of an object
volume the amount of space occupied by a substance
boiling the formation of bubbles of gas throughout a liquid
boiling point the temperature at which a liquid changes to gas and gas changes to liquid
calorie the amount of heat energy that raises the temperature of exactly one gram of water one degree Celsius
What is one calorie equal to? 4.184 Joules
Calorie a nutritional unit of energy equal to 1000 cal or 1 kcal
change of state the transformation of one state of matter to another
chemical change a change during which the original substance is converted into a new substance with a different composition and new physical and chemical properties
chemical properties the properties that indicate the ability of a substance to change to a new substance
compound a pure substance consisting of two or more elements, with a definite composition, that can be broken down into a simpler substance only by chemical methods
condensation the change of state of a gas to a liquid
deposition gas particles changing directly to a solid
element a pure substance containing only one type of matter, which cannot be broken down by chemical methods
energy the ability to do work
energy (caloric) value the kilojoules or kilocalories obtained per gram of the three food types
What are the three main food types? carbohydrate, fat, protein
evaporation the formation of a gas (vapor) by the escape of high-energy molecules from the surface of a liquid
freezing a changed of state from liquid to solid
freezing point the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid and a solid changes to a liquid
gas a state of matter characterized by no definite shape or volume; particles move rapidly
heat the energy associated with the motion of particles in a substance
joule SI unit of heat energy
kinetic energy energy of motion
liquid a state of matter that takes the shape of its container but has a definite volume
matter anything that has mass and occupies space
melting a change of state that involves the conversion of a solid to a liquid
melting point the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid; same temperature as the freezing point
mixture the physical combination of two or more substances that does not change the identities of the substances
physical change the change in which the the physical appearance of a substance changes, but the chemical composition stays the same
physical properties the properties that can be observed or measured without affecting the identity of a substance
potential energy an inactive type of energy that is stored for future use
pure substance matter composed of elements or compounds that has a definite composition
solid state of matter that has its own shape and volume
specific heat a quantity of heat that changes the temperature of exactly one gram of a substance by exactly one degree Celsius
sublimation the change of state in which a solid is transformed directly to a gas without forming a liquid first
work an activity that requires energy
alkali metal an element in Group 1A, except hydrogen, that is a soft, shiny metal with one electron in its outermost energy level
alkaline earth metal an element in Group 2A that has two electrons in its outermost energy level
atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element
atomic mass the weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
atomic mass unit used to describe the mass of extremely small particles such as atoms and subatomic particles
atomic number a number that is equal to the number of protons in an atom
atomic symbol an abbreviation used to indicate the mass number and atomic number of an isotope
chemical symbol an abbreviation that represents the name of an element
d-block the block of ten elements from Groups 3A (3) to 2B (12) in which electrons fill the five d orbitals in the d sublevels
electron a negatively charges subatomic particle having a minute mass that is usually ignore in mass calculations
electron configuration a list of the number of electrons in each sublevel within an atom, arranged by increasing energy
electron-dot symbol the representation of an atom that shows valence electrons as dots around the symbol of the element
energy level a group of electrons with similar energy
f-block the block of fourteen elements in the rows at the bottom of the periodic table in which the electrons fill the seven f orbitals in the 4f and 5f sublevels
group a vertical column in the periodic table that contains elements having similar physical and chemical properties
group number a number that appears at the top of each vertical column (group) in the periodic table and indicates the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
halogen an element in Group 7A (17)-fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine-that has seven electrons in its outermost energy level
ionization energy the energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from the outermost energy level of an atom
isotope an atom that differs only in mass number from another atom of the same element; have the same atomic number (number of protons) but different numbers of neutrons
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
metal an element that is shiny, malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity; located to the left of the zigzag line on the periodic table
metallic character a measure of how easily an element loses a valence electron
metalloid elements with properties of both metals and nonmetals located along the heavy zigzag line on the periodic table
neutron a neutral subatomic particle having a mass of about one amu and found in the nucleus of an atom
noble gas an element in Group 8A (18) of the periodic table, generally unreactive and seldom found in combination with other elements, that has eight electrons (except helium) in its outermost energy level
nonmetal an element with little or no luster that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity; located to the right of the heavy zigzag line on the periodic table
nucleus the compact, extremely dense center of an atom, containing the protons and neutrons of the atom
orbital the region around the nucleus where electrons of a certain energy are more likely to be found
s-orbitals spherical shape
p-orbitals two-lobed shape
orbital diagram a diagram that shows the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of the energy levels
p-block the elements in Groups 3A (13) to 8A (18) in which electrons fill the p-orbitals in the p sublevels
period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
periodic table an arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number such that elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns
proton a positively charged subatomic particle having a mass of about one amu and found in the nucleus of an atom
representative element an element in the first two columns on the left of the periodic table and the last six columns on the right that has a group number of 1A through 8A or 1, 2, and 13-18
s-block the elements in Groups 1A (1) and 2A (2) in which electrons fill the s orbitals
subatomic particle a particle within an atom; includes protons, neutrons, and electrons
sublevel a group of orbitals of equal energy within principal energy levels; the number equals the principal quantum number
transition element an element in the center of the periodic table that is designated with the letter "B" or the group number of 3-12
valence electron electrons in the highest energy level of an atom
Dalton's atomic theory 1)all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms 2)all atoms of a given element are similar to one another and different from atoms of other elements 3) atoms of two or more different elements combine to form compounds 4)...
heterogenous mixture components do not have a uniform composition; examples: oil and water, raisin cookie, pulp in orange juice
homogenous mixture (solution) the composition is uniform throughout the sample; examples: air, salt water
Created by: 2acrim