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Chem 1 Sec 2

Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

"X" represnts Element
Atomic number # of protons in the nucleus
Mass Number # of nucleons in the nucleus
How are isotopes different? Different total # of nucleons
How do you determine the masses of Isotopes? Mass Spectrometer
What info does the mass spectrometer provide? The mass and the relative abundance of the element's isotopes
Each isotope is represented by Relative Abundance
How many isotopes does Hydrogen have? 3
How many isotopes does Boron have? 2
How many isotopes does Neon have? 3
How many isotopes does Magnesium have? 3
Look at Table 2.2 Isotope Abundnace -
The atomic mass on the periodic chart are Weighted averages
How many isotopes does Chlorine have? 2 (Cl-35) (Cl-37)
Cl-35 Atomic mass- 35, Protons-17
Cl-35 mass and relative abundance 34.96885 u, 75.53%
Cl-37 Atomic mass- 37, Protons-17
Cl-37 mass and relative abundance 36.96590 u, 24.47%
Look at Isotope problem -
Who developed the modern periodic table? Dimitri Mendeleev
What did Mendeleev argue about? Elemental properties are periodic functions of atomic weights
Refer to the Periodic Table -
Refer to Regions in the Periodic Table -
Group 1A Alkali Metals
Alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs
What state of matter is alkali metals and their reactivity? Solids and are reactive with water to produce H+ and basic solutions
Where are these metals found? Only in nature/ they are never free elements
Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkaline earth metals Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
What state of matter are AEM? They are solids and are found naturally only in compounds
How do AEM react? Except Be, they react with water to produce basic solutions
What are Mg and Ca? 7th and 5th most abundant element's in the earth's crust
Group 3A All are metals except Boron is a metalloid
Al is the abundant metal in what? Earth's crust at 8.2% by mass
Gallium is one of the few metals that can do what? Become liquid at room temperature
Refer to Gems and Minerals -
Group 4A Nonmetal (C), Metalloids (Si & Ge), Metals (Sn & Pb)
Because of the change from nonmetallic to metallic behavior... More variation occurs in the properties of the elements of this group than in most others
What does Group 4A form with its elements? Compounds with Analogous formulas
Allotropes Nonmetal elements that have their own physical and chemical properties
How much does Nitrogen take up in earth's atmosphere? 3/4
What is a single oxygen atom considered as? Atomic Oxygen
In addition to nitrogen there are several elements that exist in nature such as... Diatomic and polyatomic molecules
Oxygen 20% of earth's atmosphere and combines with most elements
Where does most energy come from? Oxygen combining with other substances
What is Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium? Chalcogens
Group 7A: Halogens Nonmetals; most reactive elements out of all
Group 7A combines with who? Alkali metals to form salts such as table salt
What is the Greek word for Halogens? salt
What is Group 8A known as and their reactivity? Noble gases; least recative
Group 8A state of matter All gases and are not abundant on earth or its atmosphere
What is between groups 2A and 3A? Transition elements
Which transition metals are abundant in the earth's crust and are metals? 13 are metals; 30 are abundant in the earth's crust
Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt can be found where? In nature as pure substances; less recative
Elements combine to do what? Form compounds
How are compounds and elements different? Have different chemical and physical properties than before
Compounds 2 or more elements in definite ratios by mass
Molecules The smallest unit of a compound that retains its characteristics of the compound (nonmetal +nonmetal)
Compounds are never presented with what? Half numbers
Molecular formula #'s & types of each atom
Condensed formula Indicates structure
Structural formula Shows the connections (bonds)
Molecular Model Give 3-D perspective
Ionic compounds metals and nonmetals
What do ionic compounds consist of? Ions
What are ions? Atoms of groups of atoms that bear positive or negative electric charge
What compounds are composed of ions? Table salt and Sodium Chloride
Cations Removing an electron producing a positive charge
Anions Adding an electron producing a negative charge
Look at Predicting Ion Charges to Naming Ionic Compounds -
Memorize Polyatomic Ions -
Electrostatic Forces Makes cations and anions (oppositely charged ions) attracted to one another
Look at Coulomb's Law Equation -
If ion charges increase... The attractive forces between ions increase
As the distance between the oppositely charges increase Attractive forces decrease
Memorize Naming Molecular Compounds -
Ionic compounds are identified as... Metals and nonmetals combining
Avogadro's number 6.0221415 x 10^23
Look at Counting Atoms: The Mole till the END -
Created by: animalsavior