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PS111 Vocab Chap 1-3

College Chem vocab, chapters 1-3 (Gilbert, Kirss,Foster, Davies; Second Edition)

Matter The material of which the universe is made; has mass and occupies space.
Mass Defines the quantity of matter in an object. Measured on balances.
Chemistry The science of matter and its composition, structure, and properties.
Pure Substance Has the same physical and chemical properties independent of its source.
Mixture A combination of pure substances in variable proportions in which the individual substances retain their chemical identities.
Homogeneous Mixture Components are distributed evenly throughout the mixture.
Heterogeneous Mixture Components are not mixed evenly due to different compositions.
Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into similar substances my chemical means.
Compound A substance composed of two or more elements linked together in fixed proportions.
Volume The space occupied by matter.
Law of Constant Composition All samples of a particular compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions.
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Generates images of surfaces at the atomic scale.
Atom The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical characteristics of the element.
Molecule A collection of atoms chemically bonded together.
Chemical Equation Uses chemical formulas to express the identities and quantities of substances involved in a chemical reaction.
Chemical Formula Consists of symbols of the elements in a compound with subscripts to identify the number of atoms present in one molecule.
Chemical Reaction The transformation of one or more substances into different substances.
Chemical Bond The force that holds two atoms in a molecule together.
Filtration Process of separating particles by m\passing through a medium.
Solution A homogeneous mixture.
Distillation The more volatile component will vaporize and then condense, separating the mixture.
Intensive Property A characteristic independent of the amount of substance present.
Extensive Property A characteristic dependent of the amount of substance present.
Physical Property A characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance.
Density The ratio of mass and volume of an object.(Intensive property)
Chemical Property A characteristic of a substance that can be observed only by reacting it to form another substance.
Sublimation The transformation of a solid directly to a gas.
Deposition The transformation of a gas directly to a solid.
Precision The repeatability of a measurement and the extent to which repeated measurements agree among themselves.
Accuracy The agreement between an experimental value and a true value.
Absolute Zero The lowest temperature possible.
Law of Multiple Proportions The ratio of the masses of one element, Y, that react with a given mass of another element, X, to form any two compounds is the ratio of two small whole numbers.
Subatomic Particles Composes atoms; includes protons, neutrons and electrons.
Cathode Rays Streams of electrons emitted by the cathode (negative electrode) in a partially evacuated tube.
Electrom A negatively charged subatomic particle.
Beta Particle A type of radioactive emission that consists of a high-energy electron.
Alpha Particle A radioactive emission with a charge of +2 and a mass equivalent to that of a helium nucleus.
Nucleus Contains all of the positive charge and nearly all the mass in an atom.
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle present in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron An electrically neutral or uncharged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass Units (AMU) A relative scale used to express the masses of atoms and subatomic particles.
Isotopes An atom that has the same amount of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons present than a "normal" atom of that element.
Nucleons Another name for protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Average Atomic Mass Calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its exact mass units and then summing up these products.
Mass Spectrometer An instrument that measures precise masses and relative amounts of ions of atoms and molecules.
Natural Abundance An isotope's relative proportion, usually expressed as a percentage, among all the isotopes of that element as found in a natural sample.
Periods Horizontal rows in a periodic table.
Family or Group The vertical columns in a periodic table.
Transition Metals The elements in groups 3-12 in the periodic table.
Metals Shiny solids that conduct heat and electricity, malleable and ductile.
Metalloids (Semimetals) Have some metallic properties but are not metal.
Nonmetals Do not have any metallic properties, range from brittle solids to gases.
Main Group Elements (Representative Elements) Elements in groups 1,2 and 13-18
Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12
Noble Gases Elements in group 18
Created by: mnmacdonald



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