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Unit 4 Ancient Egypt

Study Guide

Amun Ra/Re • God of creation • He is the most important god • Shown as a falcon with a sun on his head • Egyptians believed the rising sun was a symbol of creation & renewal
Osiris • God of the underworld • All good pharaohs became as Osiris when they died (in life, they were Horus, Osiris’ son) • Shown as human brother and often green • Killed by his jealous brother Set (Seth)
Horus • Known as the sky god • Son of Osiris & Isis • Gives his power to each pharaoh. (Pharaohs are believed to be Horus in human form) • Shown as a falcon • Lost his eye fighting his evil uncle, Set (Seth)
Anubis • God of funerals & death • Protected the dead • Shown as a jackal/wild dog • Supervised embalming (making mummies)
Pharaoh -King or queen of Egypt: translates “Great House” - were gods, & responsible for the wellbeing of people - Responsibilities included, making laws, collecting taxes, performing rituals, overseeing the constructions of pyramids & being a military leader
Menes/Narmer’s legacy • Was the first pharaoh EVER! • United Upper and Lower Egypt when he conquered Lower Egypt around 3100 BCE • Built his Capital city where Upper and Lower Egypt met, in Memphis
Khufu’s legacy - Known as “The Great Builder” - Built the Great Pyramid at Giza - Declared himself a god - Helped establish the role of the pharaoh as a central authority by overseeing the harvest, storing extra food, and controlling a large network of gov. officials
Senusret I’s legacy • Known as the “Patron of the Arts” • Strong leader who ruled a stable and unified Egypt • Art, literature and architecture flourished during his rule
Hatshepsut’s legacy - Was the first female Pharaoh - she would often wear men’s clothing, and even the pharaonic beard to gain respect - Spread rumors that her father was a god, which furthered her acceptance as a female pharaoh
Tutankhamen’s legacy King Tut & Howard Carter • Known as the “Boy King” • He ascended the throne when he was 9 years old, and died about 10 years later! • He undid his father’s attempt to make Egypt a monotheistic society • Howard Carter uncovered his tomb, the only undisturbed tomb found to date
Ramses II’s legacy - Known as “Ramses the Great” as many pharaohs after him were named in his honor - 2nd longest serving pharaoh in Egyptian history - Renowned for his military leadership: captain in the Egyptian army by the age of 10.
Early Dynastic Period’s legacy • Began when King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt around 3100 BCE • Capital city was Memphis • Invention of Egyptian calendar and hieroglyphics
Old Kingdom’s legacy - “Age of Pyramids” - Pharaoh Khufu constructs the Great Pyramid near Giza (It is the last of the 7 ancient wonders of the world still standing) - Period ended as the Egyptian government lost power and a period of chaos& famine spread
Middle Kingdom’s legacy - “Period of Reunification” - Capital was reestablished in Thebes as Egyptian Empire had spread south - Pharaoh Senusret (art, lit. & educ.) - Ended because Hyksos conquered Egypt with new technology(horse drawn chariots, swords and metal armor)
New Kingdom’s legacy • “Empire Age” or “Golden Age” • Egyptians adopted this new technology and defeated the Hyksos and took back power • Eventually Egypt grew weak and was invaded by numerous people who took power
Late Dynastic Period’s legacy - Period of many foreign invaders—-Kushites, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks and Romans - Alexander the Great of Mecedonia (Greece) conquered Egypt in 332 BCE - Eventually Egypt became a Roman colony in 30 BCE •
New Kingdom's Pharaohs & their accomplishments Hatshepsut – first female pharaoh, promoted trade Akhenaten – tried to make Egypt monotheistic Tutankhamen – “the boy king” who brought back polytheism Ramses II – military leader who fought off Hittites from the North
Ramses II's accomplishments Signed the world’s first peace treaty with the Hittite Empire • Built hundreds of statues of himself • His most famous monument is his temple complex at Abu Simbel
Hatshepsut’s accomplishments Encouraged trade with other countries which increased the wealth and power of Egypt • Built a spectacular monument called the Temple at Dayr al-Bahri. It was built into the cliff above the Nile and had 200 sphinx statues and 2 obelisks at the entrance
Government Officials 2nd on the Social Pyramid work with pharaoh  1. Vizier - advised the pharaoh & appointed officials  2. Chief Treasurer - main duty to collect taxes 3. General of the Armies - second in command behind pharaoh, created alliances
Priests 3rd on the Social Pyramid are in charge of temples, religious rituals & oversaw mummifications High " - advised the pharaoh Temple " - in charge of temples Other " - took care of day to day tasks
Scribes 4th on the Social Pyramid were Egypt's writers and record keepers, most worked for gov't or priests and nobles, all were men, provided opportunity for social mobility
Artisans 5th on the Social Pyramid were highly skilled laborers who rarely received recognition, stone carvers, carpenters, jewelers, leather workers, metal workers
Peasants 6th on the Social Pyramid were considered unskilled laborers, Egypt depended on them, life controlled by the Nile Flooding Season - labored on royal projects Planting Season - planted their wheat & barley Harvest Season - cut & collected products
Valley of the Kings • pharoahs’ cemetery on the west side of the Nile • after the tradition of pyramid building was over, they built tombs in this location
Hieroglyphics • Ancient Egyptian writing that used pictures to express letters, sounds and complete words • Decoded using the Rosetta Stone • One of the first written languages
What was the main purpose of the mummification process? To preserve the body so the spirit (BA) recognizes the body (KA) and this was also the purpose of the death mask.
The Mummification process • Remove the brain through the nose • Take out organs (besides the heart) • Place the intestines, lungs, stomach and liver into the canopic jars • Stuff the body with natron wrapped in linen for 40 days
Rosetta Stone • Ancient Egyptian tablet found by the French, Champollion, which allowed modern people to translate hieroglyphics, an ancient language not understood for 1,500 years • Same message written in three languages
What are the 3 Seasons in Egypt? • AKHET -Flooding Season - labored on royal projects • PERET - Planting Season - planted their wheat & barley • SHEMU - Harvest Season - cut down and collected their product
Place the pharaohs in order from the first one we studied to the most recent 1. Menes/Narmer 2. Khufu 3. Senusret I 4. Hatshepsut 5. Tutankhamen 6. Ramses II