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Unit 4 Ancient Egypt

Study Guide

1.) Amun Ra/Re • 1st god. • God of creation. • Shown as a falcon with a sun on his head. • Egyptians believed the rising sun was a symbol of creation & renewal.
2.) Osiris • God of the underworld. • All good pharaohs became him when they died. • Shown as human and often green. • Killed by his jealous brother Set (Seth).
3.) Horus • Known as the sky god. • Pharaohs are believed to be him in their human form. • Gives his power to each pharaoh. • Son of Osiris & Isis. • Shown as a falcon. • Lost his eye fighting his evil Uncle Set (Seth).
4.) Anubis • God of funerals & death. • Protected the dead. • Supervised embalming (making mummies). • Shown as a jackal/wild dog.
5.) Connection between Howard Carter & King Tut • Howard Carter uncovered his tomb. • The only undisturbed tomb found to date. • Taught modern people a lot about Ancient Egypt.
6.) Menes/Narmer’s legacy • Was the first pharaoh EVER! • United Upper and Lower Egypt when he conquered Lower Egypt around 3100 BCE. • Built his capital city where Upper and Lower Egypt met, in Memphis.
7.) Khufu’s legacy • Known as “The Great Builder”. • Built the Great Pyramid at Giza. • Declared himself a god. • Established the role of the pharaoh.
8.) Senusret I’s legacy • Known as the “Patron of the Arts”. • Strong leader who ruled a stable and unified Egypt. • Art, literature, and architecture flourished during his rule.
9.) Hatshepsut’s legacy • 1st female Pharaoh. • Spread rumors that her father was a god, which furthered her acceptance as a female pharaoh. • Encouraged trade with other countries, which increased Egypts wealth & power. • Built monument - Temple at Dayr al-Bahri.
10.) Tutankhamen's legacy • Known as "the boy King". • Became king when he was 9 years old and died 10 years later. • Returned the country to polytheism. • His tomb was found intact and taught modern people about Ancient Egypt.
11.) Ramses II’s legacy • Known as “Ramses the Great”. • Most famous monument is his temple complex at Abu Simbel. • Known for his military leadership. • Captain in the Egyptian when he was 10. • Signed the world's 1st peace treaty with Hittite Empire.
12.) Early Dynastic Period • Began when King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt around 3100 BCE. • Capital city was Memphis. • Invention of Egyptian calendar and hieroglyphics.
13.) Old Kingdom • “Age of Pyramids”. • Pharaoh Khufu constructs the Great Pyramid near Giza (It's the last of the 7 ancient wonders of the world still standing). • Period ended as the Egyptian government lost power. • A period of chaos & famine spread.
14.) Middle Kingdom • “Period of Reunification”. • Capital was reestablished in Thebes as Egyptian Empire had spread south. • Pharaoh Senusret ruled. • Ended because Hyksos conquered Egypt with new technology (horse drawn chariots, swords, and metal armor).
15.) New Kingdom • “Empire Age” or “Golden Age”. • Egyptians adopted new technology and defeated the Hyksos and took back power. • Eventually Egypt grew weak and was invaded by numerous people who took power. • Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Tutankhemun, and Ramses II ruled.
16.) Late Dynastic Period • Period of many foreign invaders (Kushites, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, & Romans). • Alexander the Great of Macedonia (Greece) conquered Egypt in 332 BCE. • Eventually Egypt became a Roman colony in 30 BCE.
What is the correct social structure order in Ancient Egypt? • Pharaoh. • Government Officials. • Priests. • Scribes. • Artisans. • Peasants.
17a.) Pharaoh • King or queen of Egypt. • Translates to “Great House”. • Were gods, & responsible for the well being of people. • Responsibilities included: making laws, collecting taxes, performing rituals, overseeing constructions, & being a military leader.
17b.) Government Officials • 2nd on the Social Pyramid. • Work with pharaoh.  • Vizier - advised the pharaoh & appointed officials.  • Chief Treasurer - collected taxes. • General of the Armies - 2nd in command behind pharaoh, created alliances.
17c.) Priests • 3rd on the Social Pyramid. • Are in charge of temples, religious rituals, & oversaw mummification's. • High Priest - advised the pharaoh. • Temple Priest - in charge of temples. • Other Priests - took care of day to day tasks.
17d.) Scribes • 4th on the Social Pyramid. • Were Egypt's writers and record keepers. • Most worked for the government or priests and nobles. • All were men. • Provided opportunity for social mobility.
17e.) Artisans • 5th on the Social Pyramid. • Were highly skilled laborers who rarely received recognition. • They were: stone carvers, carpenters, jewelers, leather workers, and metal workers.
17f.) Peasants • 6th (Last) on the Social Pyramid. • Were considered unskilled laborers. • Egypt depended on them. • Their lives were controlled by the Nile. • Worked on royal projects, planted crops, and collected crops.
18.) What were the 3 seasons in Egypt? • AKHET. • PERET. • SHEMU.
18.) What is AKHET and what occurred then? • Flooding Season. • They worked on royal projects.
18.) What is PERET and what occurred then? • Planting Season. • They planted their wheat and barley.
18.) What is SHEMU and what occurred then? • Harvest Season. • They cut down and collected their crops.
19.) Rosetta Stone • Ancient Egyptian tablet found by the French, Champollion. • Had the same message written in 3 languages. • Allowed modern people to translate hieroglyphics, an ancient language not understood for 1,500 years.
20.) What was the main purpose of mummification • To preserve the body so the spirit recognizes the body in the after life. • This was also the purpose of the death mask.
20.) Mummification Process • Remove the brain through the nose. • Take out organs (besides the heart). • Place the intestines, lungs, stomach, and liver into canopic jars. • Stuff the body with natron and spices. • Leave it wrapped in linen for 40 days.
21.) Hieroglyphics • Ancient Egyptian writing that used pictures to express letters, sounds, and complete words. • Decoded using the Rosetta Stone. • One of the first written languages.
22.) Valley of the Kings • Pharoahs’ cemetery on the west side of the Nile River. • After the tradition of pyramid building was over, they built tombs in this location. • The tombs here were dug into the sides of mountains.
Place the pharaohs in order from the first one we studied to the most recent (Most Kings Should Have Tootsie Rolls) • Menes/Narmer. • Khufu. • Senusret I. • Hatshepsut. • Tutankhamen. • Ramses II.
23.) What are the 7 characteristics of a civilization in Egyptian Society? (you need to be able to cite specific examples of each and explain) • Stable Food Supply. • Writing. • Arts. • Government. • Social Structure. • Technology. • Religion.