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Unit 4 Ancient Egypt

Study Guide

Amun Ra/Re • 1st god. • God of creation. • Shown as a falcon with a sun on his head. • Egyptians believed the rising sun was a symbol of creation & renewal.
Osiris • God of the underworld. • All good pharaohs became him when they died. • Shown as human and often green. • Killed by his jealous brother Set (Seth).
Horus • Known as the sky god. • Pharaohs are believed to be him in their human form. • Gives his power to each pharaoh. • Son of Osiris & Isis. • Shown as a falcon. • Lost his eye fighting his evil Uncle Set (Seth).
Anubis • God of funerals & death. • Protected the dead. • Supervised embalming (making mummies). • Shown as a jackal/wild dog.
Connection between Howard Carter & King Tut • Howard Carter uncovered his tomb. • The only relatively undisturbed tomb found to date. • Taught us A LOT about Ancient Egypt.
Menes/Narmer’s legacy • Was the first pharaoh EVER! • United Upper and Lower Egypt when he conquered Lower Egypt • Built his capital city where Upper and Lower Egypt met, in Memphis.
Khufu’s legacy • Known as “The Great Builder”. • Built the Great Pyramid at Giza. • Declared himself a god. • Established the role of the pharaoh by controlling food surplus & large network of government officials.
Senusret I’s legacy • Known as the “Patron of the Arts”. • Strong leader who ruled a stable and unified Egypt. • Art, literature, and architecture flourished during his rule.
Hatshepsut’s legacy • 1st female Pharaoh. • Spread rumors that her father was a god, which furthered her acceptance as a female pharaoh. • Encouraged trade with other countries (Punt), which increased Egypts wealth & power. • Built monument - Temple at Dayr al-Bahri.
Tutankhamun's legacy • Known as "the boy King". • Became king when he was 9 years old and died 10 years later. • Returned the country to polytheism. • His tomb was found almost intact which taught modern people about Ancient Egypt.
Ramses II’s legacy • Known as “_________ the Great”. • Most famous monument is his temple complex at Abu Simbel. • Known for his military leadership. • Captain in the Egyptian when he was 10. • Signed the world's 1st peace treaty with Hittite Empire.
Early Dynastic Period • Began when King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt around. • Capital city was Memphis. • Invention of Egyptian calendar and hieroglyphics occurred during this period.
Old Kingdom • “Age of Pyramids”. • Pharaoh Khufu constructs the Great Pyramid near Giza (It's the last of the 7 ancient wonders of the world still standing). • Period ended as the Egyptian government lost power. • A period of chaos & famine spread.
Middle Kingdom • “Period of Reunification”. • Capital was reestablished in Thebes as Egyptian Empire had spread south. • Pharaoh Senusret most famous. • Ended because Hyksos conquered Egypt with new technology (horse drawn chariots, iron swords, and armor).
New Kingdom • “Empire Age” or “Golden Age”. • Egyptians adopted new technology and defeated the Hyksos to take back power. • Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ramses II ruled. • Eventually Egypt grew weak and was invaded by numerous people who took power.
Late Dynastic Period • Foreign invaders (Kushites, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, & finally the Romans). • Alexander the Great (Greece) conquered Egypt & his general Ptolemy established Ptolemaic Dynasty. (Cleopatra last Pharaoh) • Eventually Egypt became a Roman colony.
What is the correct social structure order in Ancient Egypt? • Pharaoh. • Government Officials. • Priests. • Scribes. • Artisans. • Peasants.
Pharaoh • King of Egypt. • Translates to “Great House”. • Were gods, & responsible for the well being of people. • Responsibilities included: making laws, collecting taxes, performing rituals, overseeing constructions, & being a military leader.
Government Officials • 2nd on the Social Pyramid. • Work with pharaoh.  • Vizier - advised the pharaoh & appointed officials.
Priests • 3rd on the Social Pyramid. • In charge of temples, religious rituals, & oversaw mummifications.
Scribes • 4th on the Social Pyramid. • Were Egypt's writers and record keepers. • Most worked for the government or priests and nobles. • Mostly men. •. 12 YEARS of school required • Provided opportunity for social mobility.
Artisans • 5th on the Social Pyramid. • Were highly skilled laborers who rarely received recognition. • They were: stone carvers, carpenters, jewelers, leather workers, metal workers, etc.
Peasants • 6th (Last) on the Social Pyramid. • Were considered unskilled laborers. • Egypt depended on them to feed the population. • Their lives were controlled by the Nile. • Worked on royal projects, planted crops, and collected crops.
What were the 3 seasons in Egypt? (And what did peasants do? NO NEED TO MEMORIZE EGYPTIAN NAME) • AKHET - Flooding Season: Worked on projects 4 gov't • PERET - Planting Season: Planted and tended to crops • SHEMU - Harvest Season: Tended to crops and cut down at end to sell.
Rosetta Stone • Ancient Egyptian tablet found by the French Army, • Same message written in 3 languages. • Allowed Jean Francois Champollion to translate hieroglyphics , an ancient language not understood for 1,500 years.
What was the main purpose of mummification • To preserve the body so the spirit recognizes the body in the afterlife and can live forever. •If the body falls apart, and becomes unrecognizable, the spirit can't reunite with it an your afterlife will be over.
Mummification Process • Remove the brain through the nose. • Take out organs, everything besides the heart. • Place the intestines, lungs, stomach, and liver into canopic jars. • Stuff body with natron and spices to dry out for 35ish days. • Wrap mummy & place in tomb
Hieroglyphics • Ancient Egyptian writing that used pictures to express letters, sounds, and complete words. • Decoded by Jean Francois Champollion using the Rosetta Stone. • One of the first written languages w/ over 700 characters.
Valley of the Kings • Cemetery for pharaohs on the west side of the Nile River. • After the tradition of pyramid building was over, they built tombs in this location. • The tombs here were dug into the sides of mountains to hide them from criminals.
Place the pharaohs in order from the first one we studied to the most recent (Most Kings Should Have Tootsie Rolls) • Menes/Narmer • Khufu • Senusret I • Hatshepsut • Akhenaten • Tutankhamun • Ramses II • Cleopatra VII
What are the 7 characteristics of a civilization in Egyptian Society? (you need to be able to cite specific examples of each to prove that Egypt possessed it) • Stable Food Supply ( specialization and or trade of surplus as evidence) • Writing (you have learned 3 languages) • Arts (be specific. Prove you were in class) • Government • Social Structure • Technology (be specific) • Religion
Why do people decide to settle in a specific place on Earth? (3 specific reasons 1. Natural Resources: a. Water b. Food (Vegetation) 2. Good climate that is easy to survive in 3. The "topography" (enough good farmland, natural boundaries/defenses.
What are the reasons why fresh water is so important to why people settle in a particular place? (5 possible answers) 1.People needed water to drink 2. They also bathed and washed things which helped prevent disease 3. People caught fish & hunted from rivers, lakes, and seas 4. Farmers needed water to irrigate their crops 5. Water was also used for transportation
What are the 7 continents? North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia & Antarctica
What are the 5 oceans? Arctic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean & Southern Ocean
Can you "Box the compass"? 1. Draw in N,E,S,W 2. Draw in the diagonal ones, in the middle, called, "Primary Intercardinal" NE, SE, SW, NW 3. Which cardinal direction is the next one closest to? (Write it) 4. What Primary Intercardinal (diagonal) is it next to? (Write it) NNE
Akhenaten's legacy •Was a New Kingdom pharaoh most famous for attempting to make Egypt a monotheistic empire. •Worshiped the Aten, or sun. •King Tut's Dad
Cleopatra VII's legacy •Last pharaoh of Egypt & of the Ptolemaic Dynasty from Macedon (Alex The Great) •Formed alliances with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony to prevent Rome from taking over Egypt. •SHE and Mark Antony lose war with Octavian (Augustus Caesar) & Rome takes over



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