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Clinical Chemistry Exam 1 Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes

Enzymes Proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions also known as biological catalysts. Speed up reactions.
Active Site Where reaction take place on an enzyme. (Where metabolizing begins)
Substrate What an enzyme acts upon to convert to a product.
Cofactor Molecule that help enzymes carry out reactions. (organic or inorganic compounds that are required for enzyme function).
Allosteric site sites on an enzyme that serves as regulation. Also known as Regulatory sites.
Proenzyme an inactive enzyme that requires metabolic activation
Enzyme-substrate complex When enzyme binds with substrate, provides free energy required for reaction. This complex brings the substrate molecule into proper alignment with the enzyme so the catalytic reaction can take place at the active site.
Name the 6 factors that influence the rate of reaction 1)Enzyme concentration 2)Substrate Concentration 3)pH 4)Temperature 5)Ionic Strength 6)Presence of Inhibitors
What is meant by increase in enzyme concentration? There are more free enzymes present to bind to substrate this will result in increase of product formation.
Substrates readily bonds to enzymes at ____ concentrations. As more substrate is added the rate of reaction _____. low;increases.
What will happen to an enzyme if the substrate concentration is TOO HIGH? The enzyme will become SATURATED.
What is the optimal physiological pH for enzymes? 7.0-8.0
How do changes in optimal pH influence the rate of enzymatic reaction? Any significant changes in pH will cause enzymes to DENATURE.
DENATURE the alteration (change in shape) of secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure of protein.
Name three exception to change in pH? Alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and pepsin.
What is the optimal temperature for Enzymes? 37 degrees Celsius
As temperature increases, there is an increase in ________ which leads to an _______ in the rate of reaction. movement/collision;increases.
What happens to protein when the temperature gets to high? the rate of reaction? Protein DENATURES. Rate of reaction decreases.
How does the presence of inhibitors affect the rate of reaction? Inhibitors can decrease the rate of reaction. Product of the reaction may inhibit enzyme activity.
What is a single point assay? assay in which a sample is incubated with the substrate for a period of time and at the end the absorbance measured (amount of product formed) and enzyme level estimated
What is a kinetic assay? As assay where a sample is incubated with the substrate and absorbance readings are measured over time (in increments)
What is used in calculating enzyme levels in a kinetic assay? an average change in absorbance
absorbance the amount of product formed from enzyme activity
What are the steps in calculating enzyme activity? 1) Calculate the change in absorbance per minute 2)Correct the dillution factor and serum volume {convert from mL to micromoles} 3)Use the formula--average of absorbances/molar absorptivity X dilution factor (total vol/sample vol)
What are the two cardiac enzymes? Creatine Kinase (CK) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)
Where is the highest activity of Creatine Kinase? Skeletal and cardiac muscles.
What tissues harbor CK enzymes? brain, kidney, liver, GI tract, skeletal and cardiac muscle.
Name the 3 CK isoforms and where they reside. 1) CK-MM found in skeletal and cardiac 2) CK-MB found in cardiac 3) CK-BB found in brain
What are the normal reference ranges for men and women CK levels? MEn-46-180 U/L Women 15-171 U/L
The normal reference range for CK-MB. CK-MB<6% total CK
Created by: yessenia87