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Chem Midterm

Chapters 1-9

Aufbau Priciple electrons full orbitals from the bottom up
electron configuration the location of electrons in an atom
Hund's rule electrons will go into an empty orbital rather than one with another electron
diamagnetic atoms with no unpaired electrons
paramagnetic atoms with unpaired electrons
condensed configuration use the noble gas to the "left"
electron configuration of Copper 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
Electron configuration of Chromiunm 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5
ground state electrons in the lowest possible energy levels
excited state an electron is moved into a higher level
effective nuclear charge the amount of "pull" the valence electrons feel increases left to right across period does not change up to down in a group
Zeff Zeff= Z-S Z(# of protons) S(# of shielding electrons)
valence electrons electrons in the outermost shell
shielding electrons the electrons that are not valence, the inner electrons
Atomic Radius distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons increases from top to bottom within a group decreases left to right across a period
Ionization energy the amount of energy needed to remove a valence electron from an atom decreases from top to bottom within a group increases left to right within a period
electronegativity the measure of how much an atom "hogs" electrons in a covalent bond decreases moving down within a group increases left to right within a period
reactivity nonmetals increases left to right within a period, metals decrease
matter has mass and occupies space
element cannot be broken down
compound bonded atoms of different elements
atoimc element an element with only one mmolecule
molecular element an element with more than one molecule
homogeneous mixture a mixture where everything is evenly dispursed
heterogeneous mixture a mixture with a clear division between the different particles
chemical change one substance is destroyed and another is created, irreversible
physical change the arrangement of molecules is changed, reversible
indicators of chemical change colour change, giving off heat/light, absorbing heat, bubbling, precipitate forming
solid rigid structure, definite shape, dense, not compressible
liquid takes the shape of container, dense, not compressible
gas fills the container it is in, low density, compressible
phase change when matter goes from one state to another, physical change
heat the energy of moving particles
physical property can be determined without hanging the identity of the object, size. shape, density, boiling point, melting point
chemical property can be determined by changing a substance
filtration separates particles based on size
settling seperates particles based on density
chromatography separates based on traveling distance, mass
distillation separates based on boiling point
meaursing go to one place more than the tool gives you
sig figs, with a decimal point Moving from left to right, count from the first nonzero digit to the final digit
sig figs without a decimal point Moving from left to right, count from the first nonzero digit to the last nonzero digit
adding/subtracting with fig figs answer has the same decimal place as problem
multiplying/diving with sig figs answer has the same sig figs as problem
precision consistency
accurate how close it is to the true value
average deviation a measurement of variation for a set of data
percent error a measurement of the accuracy of the data
systematic error an error that effects the whole lab, every data point
random error happens for only one data set, not continuous
molecular compounds made of two non-metals
ionic compound made of a metal and a non-metal
covalent bond holds together a molecular compounds, atoms share electrons
ionic bond holds together an ionic compound, atoms stick toghether
poly-atomic ion made of multiple atoms, behaves like a single particle
nitrate NO3 (-1)
sulfate SO4 (-2)
phosphate PO4 (-3)
ammomium NH4 (+1)
carbonate CO3 (-2)
bicarbonate HCO3 (-1)
hydroxide OH (-1)
acetate C2H3O2 (-1)
molecular compound prefix: 1 mono
molecular compound prefix: 2 di
molecular compound prefix: 3 tri
molecular compound prefix: 4 tetra
molecular compound prefix: 5 penta
molecular compound prefix: 6 hexa
molecular compound prefix: 7 hepta
molecular compound prefix: 8 octo
one mole 6.022*10^23 particles(atoms)
molar mass the mass of one mole of an element
solving for moles grams/molar mass
solving for grams molar mass*moles
solving for molar mass grams/moles
molecular formula the number of every atoms is shown in the subscripts
empirical formula the ratio of elements is shown in the subscripts
how to find molecular formula experimental molar mass/empirical molar mass=multiple
percent composition the percentage by mass of each element in a compund
how to find the empirical formula from percent composition percent -> Mass -> moles / smallest * till whole
chemical equation the description of a chemical reaction
reactants chemicals to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation
producats chemicals to the rights of the arrow in a chemical equation, what the reaction creates
state symbols the phase of matter a chemical is in, states in parentheses in a chemical equation
aqueous a chemical dissolved in water
coefficients indicate the number of molecules needed in a chemical equation
catalyst a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction, written above the arrow in a chemical equation
Δ indicates that reactants should be heated in a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass matter can not be created of destroyed
Stoichiometry mathematics of the molar ratios in a chemical reaction
limiting reactant/reagent the chemical that is used up first in a chemical equation
ICE chart Initial, change, end. Written in moles
theoretical yield the maximum amount of product that can be made given the limiting reagent
percent yield the percent of product made compared to the amount of product that could have been made
calculating percent yield (actual amount of product/theoretical yield) *100
synthesis A + B -> AB
decomposition AB -> A + B
Single replacment A + BC -> B + AC
double replacement AB + CD -> CB + AD
Combustion CxHyOz + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
combustion tricks coefficient of CH is half of H2O Subscript of C in CH is same of coefficient of C
diatomic 7 elements that can only live alone is groups of 2
the elements of diatomic 7 hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
atomism the idea that everything is made of atoms
Democritus Greek philospher credited with the idea of atomism
Joseph Proust French scientist credited with Law of definite proportions
Law of Definite Proportions Any given compound always contains the same ratio of element
John Dalton English scientist credited with law of multiple proportions
Law of Multiple proportions If two elements can form two or more different compounds, a fixed amount of the first element will combine with whole number multiples of the second element.
J. J. Thomphson discovered the electron
Plum pudding model created by Thompson, shows the electron in the atom
Robert Millikan Used oil can experiment to determine the charge of an electron
charge of an electron 1.602 × 10^-19coulombs or 1 atomic unit
Ernest Rutherford Uses the gold foil experiment to discover the nucleus
line spectra the wavelengths of light emitted by an element
electromagnetic (EM) wave the energy emitted from an atom when an electron "falls" back down
frequency the rate or level of energy
wavelength the distance between two waves of energy
speed of light 3.00 × 10^8 m/s
electromagnetic spectrum the range of electromagnetic waves and frequencies
spectroscope used to see the different wavelengths of light emitted by an element
Niels Bohr came up with the idea of electron orbits
quantized electrons Only certain distances from the nucleus (energy levels) were allowed
orbits set paths for electrons
Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle
uncertainty principle it is impossible to know the exact position of an electron
orbital the region in which an electron could be present
proton +1 charge, 1 atomic mass
nuetron neutral charge, 1 atomic mass
electron -1 charge, ≈0 atomic mass
atomic number the number of protons in a nucleus
isotype 2 atoms of the same element (same # of protons), but with different masses
atomic mass the weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
electrical charge the overall charge of an atom based on the # of protons and electrons
strong force the force that keeps the atom together
ratio of neutrons to protons for small nuclei 1:1
ratio of nuetrons to protons for large sucli 1.5:1
most stable nuclei nickel and iron
binding energy energy released by the particles when the strong force is applied
mass defect the amount of mass lost when the binding energy is released
radiation high speed subatomic particles, a type of electromagnetic radiation
alpha decay the nucleus emits and alpha particle, a cluster of 2 protons and 2 nuetrons
beta decay the nucleus emits a beta particle, which is an electron
gamma emission electromagnetic wave than is emitted, no charge or mass
electron capture the nucleus gains an electron, and emits x-rays
positron emission the nucleus emits a positron, a positively charged electron
predicting nuclear decay above 82 protons; beta decay less than 82 protons; alpha decay
decay chain the continuous decay of an atom until it reaches stability
fission when a nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei
critical mass atom is just large enough to sustain the chain reaction
super-critical mass when the atom is too charge to sustain the chain reaction
nuclear reactor uses fission of uranium to create energy
half life the time it takes for a sample of radioactive material to decay
Created by: T800



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