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Ch. 12

Properties of Solutions

saturated solution contains the max amount of solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a specific temperature
unsaturated solution contains less solute than it has the capacity to dissolve
supersaturated solution contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution (very unstable...crystallization often occurs)
crystallization process in which dissolved solute comes out of solution and forms crystals
exothermic solution process the solute-solvent attraction is stronger than the solvent-solvent attraction and solute-solute attraction
endothermic solution process the solute-solvent interaction is weaker than the solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions
solubility a measure of how much solute will dissolve in a solvent at a specific temperature
miscible two liquids are completely soluble in each other in all proportions
solvation process in which an ion or molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in a specific manner
hydration process in which an ion or a molecule is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner
concentration the amount of solute present in a given amount of a solution
percent by mass ratio of the mass of a solute to the mass of the solution multiplied by 100%
mole fraction ratio of the moles of a substance over the sum of the moles in all components of the solution
molarity ratio of moles of solute over volume of solution
molality ratio of moles of the solute over the mass of the solvent
fractional crystallization the separation of a mixture of substances into pure components on the basis of their differing solubilities
thermal pollution the heating of the environment to temperatures that are harmful to its living inhabitants
Created by: 1409975851